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Ch 8.2 Cell Growth and Reproduction. Ch 8.2 Cell Growth and Division. Opening Question: When a baby grows, what happens to his or her cells? 1)Does each of the cells get larger too? 2) Are there more cells? The Cells Divide rather than grow larger!

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ch 8 2 cell growth and reproduction
Ch 8.2 Cell Growth and Reproduction

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

ch 8 2 cell growth and division
Ch 8.2 Cell Growth and Division

Opening Question:

When a baby grows, what happens to his or her cells?

1)Does each of the cells get larger too?

2) Are there more cells?

The Cells Divide rather than grow larger!

3) The volume increases faster than the surface area

4) Homeostasis is disrupted by a cell that is too large!

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

ch 10 cell growth and division
Ch 10 Cell Growth and Division

Cell Division

5) Before the cell becomes too large, it divides forming two ___________ cells.

6) Before cell division, all of the ______ replicates or copies itself.

daughter

DNA

  • 7) Two reasons cells divide rather than grow in size
  • 8) The __________ increases faster than the _________________
  • 9) ________________ is disrupted by a cell that is too large!

volume

Surface area

Homeostasis

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

ch 10 cell growth and division1
Ch 10 Cell Growth and Division

Remember from cell theory:

10) All cells come from ___________ cells!

11) This is _____ division, or __________, these two cells that are identical to the original _________ cell

12 The exact copy of the parent is called a ___________ cell.

preexisting

Cell

mitosis

parent

daughter

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

ch 8 2 cell division
Ch 8-2 Cell Division

genetic

chromosomes

13)In eukaryotic cells, the ________ information is passed on from one generation to the next generation by strands of DNA called ___________ Most of a cell’s lifetime, chromosomes exist as Chromatin, granular material in the nucleus

14)Chromosomes are made up of _______,

which carries the cells genetic information and proteins

15)Humans have ______ chromosomes or ___pairs

16)Chromosomes are not visible except during cell division

17)Before cell division the chromosomes condense into compact, visible structures that can be seen (compound light microscope)

DNA

46

23

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide7

The Cell Cycle

2

*There are _______ types of cell division…

MEIOSIS

GAMETES

(sex cells)

Egg and sperm

parent

MITOSIS produces exact copies of the__________

These cells are called _____________ cells

daughter

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

Chapter 10

slide8

18. Draw the Chromosome Structure as shown on page 205. Include by labeling the following terms: Sister Chromatids, Centromere, and Chromosome

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide9

8- 2 The Cell Cycle

CHROMOSOME

SISTER CHROMATIDS

CENTROMERE

CHROMATID

“Structure”

TETRAD

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

8.2

duplicated chromosomes
Duplicated Chromosomes

19) A Tetrad: consists of two (2) homologous chromosomes, each made up of two sister chromatids. The chromatids in a tetrad pair coil tightly and allow for crossing over (only in meiosis).

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide11

8 – 2 Mitosis: Cell

Mitosis

20) Parent cell produces two daughter cells.

21) Each daughter cell gets a copy, thus each daughter cell is genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell

22) Mitosis is made up of several phases:

23) Prophase

24) Metaphase

25) Anaphase

26) Telophase

Mitosis starts with chromosomes doubling and condensing

During mitosis, sister chromatids separate and are identical to each other and to parent cell.

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

8.2

ch 8 2 cell cycle
Ch 8.2 Cell Cycle

The Cell Cycle

23) The “in-between” periods of cell growth are called ___________.

24) The cell _________ is the series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.

Interphase

cycle

During Interphase:

25) The cell grows in size and carries on metabolism.

26) Chromosomes are duplicated!

Interphase

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide13

Prophase

27) Prophase - The Preparation Phase (longest phase)

28) Chromosomesbecome visible

29) Chromosomes are coiled tightly.

30) Nucleolus disappears

31) CENTRIOLESappear with spindle fibers.

32) SPINDLEforms a microtubule structure that helps separate chromosomes

33) This is the first time __________ can be seen using a compound light microscope.

chromosomes

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

8.2

slide14
F

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide15

Metaphase: Second stage of Mitosis

Metaphase

34) (movement to equator)

35) Chromosomes line up along an imaginary plane called the midline or equator.

36) Chromosomes are pulled by the spindle fibers and begin to line up on midline or equator.

37) Centriolescomplete migration to opposite poles

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

8.2

slide16
F

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide17

Anaphase: The third phase of mitosis

Anaphase

(38) ( separation)

39) Centromeressplit and the sister chromatids are pulled towards opposite poles of the cell

40) Spindle fibers shorten  pulls them apart

41) The two groups near the poles of the spindle

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

8.2

slide18
F

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide19

Telophase: the fourth phase of mitosis

Telophase

42) Chromatidsreach the opposite poles of the cell

43) Chromosomesunwind and begin metabolism.

44) Spindle begin to break down

45) NewNuclear membrane form

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

8.2

slide20
F

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide21

Cytokinesis

46) CYTOKINESIS: the cell’s cytoplasm divides into two daughter cells.

47) Typically occurs immediately after mitosis

48) In animals  CLEAVAGE FURROW

49) In plants  CELL PLATE

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

8.2

cytokinesis in animal cells
Cytokinesis in Animal Cells

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

phases of mitosis in plant cells
Phases of Mitosis in Plant Cells

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide24

Mitosis & Cytokinesis

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

8.2

ch 8 3 regulating the cell cycle
Ch 8 -3 Regulating the Cell Cycle

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

an overview of meiosis and mitosis

sperm

(1n)

egg

(1n)

Zygote

(2n)

An Overview of Meiosis and Mitosis

50) Meiosis is the process that produces sex cells, the _______ in males and the _________ in females.

sperm

egg

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

an overview of meiosis and mitosis1
An Overview of Meiosis and Mitosis

51) During Meiosis the number of chromosomes is reduced by half. This chromosome number is called __________ (half) or ______.

52) A diploid cell is a ____________ cell. (skin cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, etc)

53) A haploid cell contains only one of each kind of ___________. A __________, or sex cell, is a haploid cell (eggs and sperms)

54) Every living thing has a set number of chromosomes. For example, every has 78 chromosomes,

Every person has 46 chromosomes and

every tomato plant has 24 chromosomes

The number of chromosomes

does notrelate to how complex an

organism is

haploid

1n

2n or body

Chromosome or genes

gamete

an overview of meiosis and mitosis2

sperm

(n)

egg

(1n)

Zygote

(2n)

An Overview of Meiosis and Mitosis

55) When organisms reproduce, it only passes

on _________ the number of chromosomes.

56) In a diploid cell, the two chromosomes of each pair are called ____________ ________

half

Homologous chromosome

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

homologous pairs
Homologous Pairs

57) Homologous chromosomes (homologues) are paired chromosomes that code for the same traits (one inherited from each

(58) parent).

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

how does a diploid cell become a haploid cell
How does a diploid cell become a haploid cell

Meiosis

half

  • 59) _____________ produces gametes containing ______
  • the number of chromosomes as the parent’s body.
  • 60) Meiosis is actually _______ separate division, ______ and ____________.
  • 61) The whole process begins with one diploid cell (2n) and ends with _____ haploid cells. The haploid cells are gametes. When the egg and sperm unites the _______ becomes a multicellular organism, in a process called _________ reproduction

two

Meiosis 1

Meiosis 2

four

zygote

Sexual

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

the phases of meiosis
The Phases of Meiosis

62) Before meiosis begins, the chromosomes in a cell are replicated or copied. Each chromosome consist of ______ sister chromatids connected by a __________

Interphase: cell growth (2n) has nucleolus

two

centromere

  • Prophase I:
  • DNA coils up and spindle forms
  • Chromosomes pair up

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide33

63) Crossing Over: Pieces of chromatid can break off from the other homologous chromosome and genetic information can be exchanged. Genetic Recombination

Prophase I:

Metaphase I: move to

middle along equator

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

crossing over
Crossing-Over

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

meiosis i
Meiosis I

Anaphase I:

separation

Telophase I:

spindle fibers break down and chromosomes uncoil, now there are two cells both (2n) diploid number.

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

meiosis ii second division
Meiosis II:(second division)

Prophase II:

Spindle forms in each new cell, attaches to centromere of chromosomes

Metaphase II:

Movement to midline

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide37

Meiosis II:(second division)

Anaphase II:

Separation and movement to poles

Telophase II;

Cytoplasm separates and now there are four daughter cell with haploid number of chromosomes

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

meiosis overview
Meiosis Overview

2n

2n

n

n

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

ch 8 3 control of the cell cycle
Ch 8 -3 Control of the Cell Cycle
  • Normal Control of the Cell Cycle
  • The cell cycle is controlled by conditions both inside the cell and in the cell’s environment. When something goes wrong with normal cell conditions, cells lose control of the cell cycle.
  • Cancer is a growth that occurs when uncontrolled cell division take place.
    • The loss of control may be caused by a change in enzyme production inside the cell or outside conditions , such as air or water pollution.
    • Enzyme: type of protein that changes the rate of chemical reactions

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

cancer a mistake in the cell cycle
Cancer: A mistake in the Cell Cycle

Scientists think cancer is caused by changes to one or more of the genes that control the cell cycle.

A gene is a part of the DNA that controls the production of a protein.

Cancer occurs when something causes the damaged genes to go into action (SMOKING). Cancer cells then form masses of tissues called tumors. Tumors keep normal cells from getting needed nutrients. This caused organ damage. Cancer can spread throughout the body to other organs.

Lung Cancer (smoker)

Clean Lung (non-smoker)

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

what are the causes of cancer
What are the causes of cancer?
  • Cancer is the second leading cause of DEATH in the United States.
  • Environmental factors include:
  • cigarette smoke
  • air and water pollution
  • exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sun
  • viral infections that damage the genes

Lung Cancer (smoker)

Skin cancer

(sun exposure)

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide46

Cytokinesis

Animals only, not plants!

Cleavage furrow

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide47

Centrisome

Spindle fibers

Prophase

Chromosomes-

Thicken, double, are visible, nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear

Interphase –

cell growth

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide50

Anaphase:

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide51

Prophase:

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide52

Metaphase:

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide53

Telophase:

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide54

Prophase:

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide56

3.

1.

4.

2.

5.

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide57

Mitosis

2.

1.

3.

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

4.

5.

6.

slide58

Meiosis I

Hickox: Baker High School Biology

slide59

Meiosis II

Hickox: Baker High School Biology