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Thinking about thinking cartoons in the RE classroom

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  1. Thinking about thinking cartoons in the RE classroom Dilwyn Hunt

  2. example 1 Weak or flawed thinking A I guess so. Lots of people say God is real so it must be true. Do you think God is real? Insert an image of two young people Ginny and Jerome talking Ginny I guess so. If there isn’t a God how did the universe get started? Jerome B A Which of Jerome’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  3. example 1 Weak or flawed thinking A I guess so. Lots of people say God is real so it must be true. If lots of people say something is true, that doesn’t make it true. Insert an image of Jerome talking insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher Appealing to the people I guess so. If there isn’t a God how did the universe get started? Argumentum ad populum Jerome B A Which of Jerome’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  4. example 1 Weak or flawed thinking A I guess so. Lots of people say God is real so it must be true. Do you think God is real? Insert an image of two young people Ginny and Jerome talking Ginny I guess so. If there isn’t a God how did the universe get started? Jerome The fact that lots of people say that God is real doesn’t make it true. B For example, lots of people once believed that the earth stood still and the sun travelled around the earth but today we know that is not true. Explain why.

  5. example 2 Weak or flawed thinking A I reckon so. There has to be a God. It stands to reason. So God must exist. Do you think there really is a God? Insert an image of two young people Ginny and Jerome talking Ginny I reckon so. If there isn’t a God where did life come from? Jerome B A Which of Jerome’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  6. example 2 Weak or flawed thinking A I reckon so. There has to be a God. It stands to reason. So God must exist. • This is a circular argument. Jerome begins with what he is trying to end up with. insert an image of a Jerome insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher I reckon so. If there isn’t a God where did life come from? It is based on a premise which contains the conclusion. Jerome B A Which of Jerome’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  7. example 2 Weak or flawed thinking A I reckon so. There has to be a God. It stands to reason. So God must exist. 1st premise insert an image of a Jerome insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher There has to be a God. 2nd premise It stands to reason. I reckon so. If there isn’t a God where did life come from? Conclusion So God must exist. Jerome B A Which of Jerome’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  8. example 2 Weak or flawed thinking God is a necessary being. God cannot fail to exist. So God cannot not exist? 1st premise insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher God is a necessary being. 2nd premise God cannot fail to exist. Conclusion So God cannot not exist. Ashley Is Ashley’s argument a circular argument? Explain why.

  9. diamond nine critical thinking Giving reasons strongest reason Lucy says she believes in the resurrection of Jesus. Which is her strongest reason? Which is her weakest reason? weakest reason

  10. diamond nine critical thinking Giving reasons strongest reason Dave says a church should be allowed to provide same sex marriages if they want to. Which is his strongest reason? Which is his weakest reason? weakest reason

  11. example 3 Weak or flawed thinking Yes – his disciples were scared and had given up but then they changed and were full of courage. Something happened that changed them. They had seen Jesus alive. Insert an image of two young people Haryy and Carl talking A Do you think Jesus rose from the dead? Carl Yes – Jesus rose from the dead. That’s my opinion and everyone has a right to their opinion. Harry Which of Harry’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? B B Explain why.

  12. example 3 Weak or flawed thinking No reason is given. The issue is seen as personal rather than what it is – a claim about what really happened in the world. Insert an image of two young people Harry and Carl talking Do you think Jesus rose from the dead? insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher Carl Yes – Jesus rose from the dead. That’s my opinion and everyone has a right to their opinion. Harry Which of Harry’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? B Explain why.

  13. example 3 Weak or flawed thinking No reason is given. The issue is seen as personal rather than what it is – a claim about what really happened in the world. Insert an image of two young people Haryy and Carl talking Do you think Jesus rose from the dead? insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher Carl Yes – Jesus rose from the dead. That’s my opinion and everyone has a right to their opinion. Harry Whether Harry has a right to have an opinion is not the issue. B The issue is - did Jesus rise from the dead. Harry is not offering a reason for agreeing with his view. Explain why.

  14. example 3 Weak or flawed thinking Jesus rose from the dead. That’s my opinion and everyone has a right to their opinion. Harry objective subjective uncontentious contentious likely to cause an argument not likely to cause an argument Geoff Hurst’s 3rd goaldid cross the line England won the World Cup in 1966 The next fifty years will see the healthy growth of RE in our schools. The law requires RE to be taught in all Community schools. When die we will haveto face the judgement of God. The Bible is the Christian holy book.

  15. example 3 Weak or flawed thinking Jesus rose from the dead. That’s my opinion and everyone has a right to their opinion. Harry objective subjective Subjective statements reflect the personal preferences of people. The subject of the statement is the person. Objective statements are not personal preferences. They are claims about the world. Harry likes Brussels sprouts but hates broad beans. Jesus rose from the dead. Harry likes Grime but doesn’t like Heavy Metal. God created the universe. Harry likes Star Trek but doesn’t like Dr Who. There will be a Judgement Day

  16. example 3 Weak or flawed thinking No reason is given. The issue is seen as personal rather than what it is – a claim about what really happened in the world. Insert an image of two young people Harry and Carl talking Do you think Jesus rose from the dead? insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher Carl Yes – Jesus rose from the dead. That’s my opinion and everyone has a right to their opinion. Harry The claim that Jesus rose from the dead has to do with claiming that an event in this world really happened. It is not an issue to do with personal inner feelings or preferences. Explain why.

  17. example 4 Weak or flawed thinking A You can’t swim properly Ginny so I bet you can’t pray right either. • I prayed for Grandma so how come she still died? Insert an image of two young people Harry and Carl talking Ginny I guess God doesn’t always do what we want Ginny. God does what is right. Jerome A Which of Jerome’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? B Explain why.

  18. example 4 Weak or flawed thinking A You can’t swim properly Ginny so I bet you can’t pray right either. Attacking the person and not the issue is not a proper argument. insert an image of a Jerome insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher Attacking the person I guess God doesn’t always do what we want Ginny. God does what is right. Argumentum ad hominem Jerome A B Which of Jerome’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  19. example 4 Weak or flawed thinking A You can’t swim properly Ginny so I bet you can’t pray right either. I prayed for Grandma so how come she still died? Insert an image of two young people Ginny and Jerome talking Ginny A I guess God doesn’t always do what we want Ginny. God does what is right. Jerome Jerome is not talking about the subject which is prayer but is talking about Ginny. B The fact that Ginny can’t swim does not matter. It is not connected in any way to the subject which is prayer. Explain why.

  20. example 5 Weak or flawed thinking Yes – people who believe in voluntary euthanasia say that everyone over the age of 75 should volunteer to be put to death. Insert an image of two young people Harry and Carl talking Do you think voluntary euthanasia is wrong? Harry A Yes – because we must live with everything life throws at us – good and bad. You shouldn’t just ask to die no matter how tough and difficult it becomes. Carl A Which of Carl’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? B Explain why.

  21. example 5 Weak or flawed thinking Yes – people who believe in voluntary euthanasia say that everyone over the age of 75 should volunteer to be put to death. Do you think voluntary euthanasia is wrong? This is a ‘straw man’ argument. It attacks a view which they do not have. insert an image of a Carl insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher A Yes – because we must live with everything life throws at us – good and bad. You shouldn’t just ask to die no matter how tough and difficult it becomes. Carl A B Which of Carl’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  22. example 5 Weak or flawed thinking Yes – people who believe in voluntary euthanasia say that everyone over the age of 75 should volunteer to be put to death. Do you think voluntary euthanasia is wrong? This is a ‘straw man’ argument. It attacks a view which they do not have. insert an image of a Carl insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher A Yes – because we must live with everything life throws at us – good and bad. You shouldn’t just ask to die no matter how tough and difficult it becomes. Carl People who believe in voluntary euthanasia do not believe elderly people should volunteer to die. B This is a weak and inaccurate version of what they say which is put up in order to be easily knocked down and dismissed.

  23. example 6 Weak or flawed thinking A I think they are. Some of the miracles have details which wouldn’t be there if the story had been made up. Do you think Jesus’ miracles are true? Insert an image of two young people Harry and Carl talking Carl I think they are. It says so in the Bible and the Bible doesn’t lie. B Harry Which of Harry’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? B Explain why.

  24. Do you think Jesus’ miracles are true? example 6 Weak or flawed thinking A I think they are. Some of the miracles have details which wouldn’t be there if the story had been made up. The fact that something or someone says it is true doesn’t mean it is true. insert an image of a Harry insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher I think they are. It says so in the Bible and the Bible doesn’t lie. appeal to authority B argumentum ad verecundiam Harry Which of Harry’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? B Explain why.

  25. Do you think Jesus’ miracles are true? example 6 Weak or flawed thinking A I think they are. Some of the miracles have details which wouldn’t be there if the story had been made up. The argument only appeals to those who believe in Bible. insert an image of a Harry insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher I think they are. It says so in the Bible and the Bible doesn’t lie. appeal to authority B argumentum ad verecundiam Harry Which of Harry’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? B Explain why.

  26. Do you think Jesus’ miracles are true? example 6 Weak or flawed thinking A I think they are. Some of the miracles have details which wouldn’t be there if the story had been made up. The argument only appeals to those who believe in Bible. insert an image of a Harry insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher I think they are. It says so in the Bible and the Bible doesn’t lie. appeal to authority B argumentum ad verecundiam Harry Claiming something is true because it is in the Bible doesn’t settle the issue. It just poses the question - is the Bible true? Which of Harry’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? At best the reason can only persuade people who already believe the Bible is true.

  27. example 7 Weak or flawed thinking No. The theory of evolution is just a theory. Insert an image of two young people Harry and Carl talking Do you believe in the theory of evolution? A Harry No. 3½ billion years ago there was water, carbon, light but nothing living. Then suddenly there were living cells. Evolution can’t explain that. Carl A B Which of Carl’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  28. example 7 Weak or flawed thinking No. The theory of evolution is just a theory. Insert an image of two young people Harry and Carl talking Do you believe in the theory of evolution? A Harry No. 3½ billion years ago there was water, carbon, light but nothing living. Then suddenly there were living cells. Evolution can’t explain that. Carl A B Which of Carl’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  29. Do you believe in the theory of evolution? example 7 Weak or flawed thinking This is an ‘equivocation’ argument. The word ‘theory’ is being used to mean to different things. No. The theory of evolution is just a theory. insert an image of a Carl A insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher No. 3½ billion years ago there was water, carbon, light but nothing living. Then suddenly there were living cells. Evolution can’t explain that. ‘Theory’ can mean something that is ‘iffy’ or ‘conjecture’. Carl A B Which of Carl’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  30. Do you believe in the theory of evolution? example 7 Weak or flawed thinking doublespeak This is an ‘equivocation’ argument. The word ‘theory’ is being used to mean to different things. No. The theory of evolution is just a theory. insert an image of a Carl A insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher No. 3½ billion years ago there was water, carbon, light but nothing living. Then suddenly there were living cells. Evolution explain that. ‘Theory’ means a statement based on all available empirical data which currently best explains a natural phenomena. Carl A B Which of Carl’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  31. Do you believe in the theory of evolution? example 7 Weak or flawed thinking doublespeak This is an ‘equivocation’ argument. The word ‘theory’ is being used to mean to different things. No. The theory of evolution is just a theory. insert an image of a Carl A insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher No. 3½ billion years ago there was water, carbon, light but nothing living. Then suddenly there were living cells. Evolution explain that. ‘Theory’ means a statement based on all available empirical data which currently best explains a natural phenomena. Carl A B The use of the word ‘theory’ in its sense meaning something ’iffy’ attempts to suggest that evolutionists themselves acknowledge that the idea is uncertain. Explain why.

  32. example 8 Weak or flawed thinking Do you think that without religion people are more bad? A I guess so. If you think you’ve got to face God one day it must make some difference. Ginny Insert an image of two young people Ginny and Jerome talking I guess so. When people stop believing crime and violence goes up. B Jerome B Which of Ginny’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  33. example 8 Weak or flawed thinking Spurious correlation argument A I guess so. If you think you’ve got to face God one day it must make some difference. Ginny This is a ‘spurious correlation argument’. Correlation does not mean cause. insert an image of a Ginny insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher I guess so. When people stop believing crime and violence goes up. B B Which of Ginny’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed?

  34. example 8 Weak or flawed thinking Spurious correlation argument A I guess so. If you think you’ve got to face God one day it must make some difference. Ginny This is a ‘spurious correlation argument’. Correlation does not mean cause. insert an image of a Ginny insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher I guess so. When people stop believing crime and violence goes up. B The decline in religion may coincide with an increase in crime But there may not be any direct connection. The increase in crime may be due more to the increase in the number of people living in cities. another factor Which of Ginny’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed?

  35. example 9 Weak or flawed thinking A Insert an image of two young people Harry and Carl talking There is evil in the worldbut I think most of it is down to us. It’s not the fault of demon or a fallen angel. Do you believe in Satan? B Satan definitely does exist and there’s no proof that it isn’t true. Carl Harry B Which of Harry’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  36. Do you believe in Satan? example 9 Weak or flawed thinking A There isn’t any smoke so there must be a fire. There is evil in the worldbut I think most of it is down to us. It’s not the fault of demon or a fallen angel. insert an image of a Harry A claim is not shown to be true on the grounds that it hasn’t been proved false. insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher B Satan definitely does exist and there’s no proof that it isn’t true. Argument from ignorance Harry argumentum ad ignorantiam B Which of Harry’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  37. Do you believe in Satan? example 9 Weak or flawed thinking A The burden of proof is usually on those making the claim not on those who deny it.. There is evil in the worldbut I think most of it is down to us. It’s not the fault of demon or a fallen angel. insert an image of a Harry A claim is not shown to be true on the grounds that it hasn’t been proved false. insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher B Satan definitely does exist and there’s no proof that it isn’t true. Argument from ignorance Harry argumentum ad ignorantiam B Which of Harry’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  38. example 10 Weak or flawed thinking I think it is a good idea. My sister got married when she was eighteen and she is very happy. Insert an image of two young people Harry and Carl talking Don’t you think getting married young is often a mistake? A Harry I think it is a good idea. It depends on how strong the relationship is and how hard they both work at maintaining it. Carl B A Which of Carl’s reasons do you think is most weak or perhaps flawed? Explain why.

  39. Don’t you think getting married young is often a mistake? example 10 Weak or flawed thinking The generalisation fallacy I think it is a good idea. My sister got married when she was eighteen and she is very happy. This is a ‘generalising from the particular argument.’ insert an image of a Carl insert an image of an ancient Greek philosopher A I think it is a good idea. It depends on how strong the relationship is and how hard they both work at maintaining it. A specific example cannot be use to support a general conclusion. The sample is too small to support such a claim. Carl B A Carl’s argument is weak because he makes a general conclusion from a single example. To support such a broad conclusion a large number body of evidence would be needed. Explain why.