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Georgia Competent Applicator of PesticidesProgram (GCAPP) Frank Hancock, Henry Co. Agriculture & Natural Resource Agent Paul Guillebeau, Professor, Department of Entomology Doug Jones, Georgia Department of Agriculture Georgia Department of Agriculture
The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension and the Georgia Department of Agriculture developed the GCAPP program to protect human health and the environment by providing training for pesticide applicators who are not required to have an applicator’s license. Instructors may adapt specific information (e.g. pesticide products) to better fit their audience. Product names do not imply endorsement or criticism by the University of Georgia or the Georgia Department of Agriculture.
What is a Pesticide? • “-cide”= to kill • Pesticides - designed to control populations of organisms causing problems for humans. • “Pesticide” is a broad term including: • Herbicides Rodenticides • Fungicides Nematicides • Bactericides Insecticides etc.
What is a Pest? • Pests compete with humans, domestic animals, and desirable plants for nutrients and water. • Pests may injure humans, domestic animals, desirable plants, and structures. • Some pests spread disease. • Some pests annoy humans or domestic animals. • A pest can be any organism that is not wanted or is in the wrong place at the wrong time.
Advantages of Modern Pesticides • Save human lives by controlling pests that spread diseases like malaria or encephalitis. • Increase food supplies and reduce food costs. • Increase profit for farmers. • Control pests quickly. Pesticides may be the only rapid solution to uncontrolled pest populations.
Disadvantages of Modern Pesticides • May be toxic to humans. • May harm the environment. • May kill non-target arthropods (e.g., insects, spiders) that help control pest populations. • Many applications do not reach the target. • Less than 2% of insecticides applied reach target insect • 5% reaches target plant—the rest goes into the environment • Pests may develop genetic resistance to pesticides.
Labeling • Labeling includes the product label and all the other information referenced on the label. • You must read and follow the label and any supplemental labeling information.
Pesticide Classification • The EPA classifies pesticides as unclassified or Restricted Use. • An unclassified pesticide may be purchased or used by any adult. • Restricted Use Pesticides must be purchased by a licensed applicator and applied under their supervision. • Georgia and some other states require a license for any commercial application of pesticides.
Restricted Use Pesticides (RUP) A box on the front panel identifies RUP. RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE For retail sale to and use only by certified applicators, or persons under their direct supervision and only for the uses covered by the certified applicator’s certification.
Pesticide Label Information • Brand name • Ingredients • Formulation • Signal word – DANGER, WARNING, CAUTION • Directions for use • Hazards to humans, animals, and the environment • Personal Protective Equipment Requirements • First Aid • Registration number, manufacturer name/address • Net contents
Pesticide Ingredients • The active ingredients are specified on the label. • This information can help you compare different pesticide products. • Inert ingredients are not identified.
Signal words • DANGER pesticides are extremely dangerous • A very small amount of a DANGER-POISON pesticide will kill a human or pet • DANGER pesticides can cause severe eye/skin injury • WARNING – larger amounts will injure humans • CAUTION pesticides are the least dangerous but can still cause injury
Statements of Practical Treatment • Hazards to humans • Hazards to domestic animals • Acute effects statement (happen within 24 hours) • Delayed or chronic effects statement (happen over time such as cancer) • Your risk hazard from pesticide depends on the toxicity of the pesticide and your exposure to it
Hazard Statements • Hazards to Humans • Eye, skin, inhalation, ingestion, etc. • Environmental Hazards • Birds, bees, groundwater, etc. • Consider the hazards before you buy a pesticide.
First Aid (Statements of Practical Treatment) • Call 911 for life-threatening injuries. • Call Poison Control for less serious injuries. • 800-222-1222 from anywhere in the U.S. • Use First Aid on the label if help is delayed.
Directions for Use • Use sites - only use a pesticide on sites indicated in the labeling. Application to other sites is illegal and may be dangerous. • Use rates – exceeding labeling rates or frequency is dangerous and illegal. • You may use below the labeled use rate. • Pests – you may not use a pesticide against pests not listed in the labeling. • The pesticide may not be effective against other pests
Other Labeling Information • Pests controlled • Equipment: any application equipment may be used unless prohibited by the labeling. • Mixing directions • Other pesticides that can be applied in combination • Potential injury or stains to plants, animals, or surfaces
The labeling directions are not advice, they are requirements It is illegal and dangerous to use a pesticide in any way not permitted by the labeling.
Wrong Stuff • MSMA on Centipede
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) • IPM combines multiple pest control tactics into a single plan to manage pest populations and minimize risks to human health and the environment. • Relying on pesticides alone increases risks to humans/environment and the likelihood of pest resistance.
PEST IDENTIFICATION • The first step in pest management is correct identification of the pest. • Physical features • Characteristics of damage • Life cycle • Consult your local Extension office for help with pest identification.
PEST MANAGEMENT • Evaluate the damage or expected damage. • Use a control strategy that will reduce pest populations or damage to acceptable levels. • Minimize human/environmental risks.
MANAGEMENT GOALS • Prevention • Suppression • Eradication
MONITORING • What pests are present? • What beneficials are present? • Is action warranted? • When is the right time to begin control? • Were control tactics successful?
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Monitor pest populations/injury and determine if action is warranted. • Understand pest biology and ecology. • Determine pest control goals. • Know what control tactics are available. • Evaluate the benefits and risk of each tactic. • Choose a strategy that will be the effective and minimize risks.
PEST CONTROL FAILURES • Incorrect pest identification • Wrong pesticide • Incorrect timing of application • Incorrect placement of application • Pest resistance • New infestation
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS PROTECTING GROUND WATER AND ENDANGERED SPECIES
GROUND WATER • Water beneath the earths surface • Aquifers supply water to wells/springs • Pesticide contamination of aquifers is a major concern.
GROUNDWATER SOURCES • RAIN • SNOW • LAKES • STREAMS • IRRIGATION
WATER MOVEMENT • EVAPORATION/TRANSPIRATION • SURFACE RUNOFF • DOWNWARD INFILTRATION
Flowing artesian well Precipitation Evaporation and transpiration Well requiring a pump Evaporation Confined Recharge Area Runoff Aquifer Stream Infiltration Watertable Lake Infiltration Unconfinedaquifer Confinedaquifer Less permeable material such as clay Confirming permeable rock layer Ground Water Fig. 15-3 p. 308
No New Water • Existing water is the same as we have always had. • 97% of the earths water is salty. • 2% is frozen in polar caps. • 1% is all we have to use. • U.S. water systems pump 185 gallons/person per day.
NONPOINT SOURCES Rural homes Cropland Urban streets Animal feedlot POINT SOURCES Suburban development Factory Wastewater treatment plant Point and Non-point Sources Fig. 22-4 p. 494
FACTORS DETERMINING IF PESTICIDE REACHES GROUND WATER • Application practices • Presence of water at surface • Chemical characteristics of pesticide • Soil type • Geology/Location of ground water
APPLICATION PRACTICES • Never exceed labeling rates. • Use proper application methods. • Prevent back siphoning. • Locate storage and mix/load sites at least 100’ from surface water or links to groundwater. • Dispose of pesticides properly.
WATER PRESENT AT SURFACE • Rain • Irrigation • Saturated soil • Water and pesticides may move through the soil to groundwater.
PESTICIDE CHARACTERISTICS • Water solubility • Persistence • Affinity for soil particles/organic matter • Refer to pesticide labeling and the Material Safety Data Sheet for the pesticide.
SOIL FACTORS • Soil texture • Soil permeability • Soil organic mater
GEOLOGY • Distance from soil surface to water • Sink holes • Permeability
SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION • Spills • Improper disposal • Improper cleanup • Exceeding labeling rates