slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Increasing Retention Rates of Low-Income Parents: Strategies of Partnership and Empowerment PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Increasing Retention Rates of Low-Income Parents: Strategies of Partnership and Empowerment

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 74

Increasing Retention Rates of Low-Income Parents: Strategies of Partnership and Empowerment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 110 Views
  • Uploaded on

Lynn McDonald, Professor of Social Work Research, Middlesex University, London, Families and Schools Together (FAST) Programme Developer Lynn McDonald, Athro Ymchwil Gwaith Cymdeithasol, Prifysgol Middlesex, Llundain, Datblygydd Rhaglen Teuluoedd ac Ysgolion Ynghyd (FAST).

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Increasing Retention Rates of Low-Income Parents: Strategies of Partnership and Empowerment' - devi


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Lynn McDonald, Professor of Social Work Research, Middlesex University, London, Families and Schools Together (FAST) Programme Developer

Lynn McDonald, Athro Ymchwil Gwaith Cymdeithasol, Prifysgol Middlesex, Llundain, Datblygydd Rhaglen Teuluoedd ac Ysgolion Ynghyd (FAST)

increasing retention rates of low income parents strategies of partnership and empowerment

Increasing Retention Rates of Low-Income Parents: Strategies of Partnership and Empowerment

September 18, 2013

Parent engagement conference

Cardiff, wales

DR. LYNN MCDONALD

FAST PROGRAMME FOUNDER

PROFESSOR OF SOCIAL WORK, MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY, LONDON, ENGLAND

shared goal enhancing child well being
Shared Goal: Enhancing Child Well-Being
  • Policies being developed are to increase the impact and the reach of positive parenting groups
  • Review of evidence enables local authorities and national governments to identify what works best
  • However, evidence is not enough.
  • There must also in addition be Reach.
  • Transparency is needed to identify whether and how many low-income families living in disadvantaged communities are actually receiving the benefits by completing the parenting groups on offer
retention rates for low income parents
Retention Rates for Low-Income Parents
  • Drop out rates in child mental health clinics: if a family comes once, 40-60% will not complete treatment (Kazdin, 2001);
  • Drop out rates in child mental health clinics: if a family comes once and the parent is low income or socially marginalized, > 60% drop out early
  • Reported drop out rates in parenting groups aimed at child mental health promotion for low-income, single and socially marginalized parents are higher: range between 40% to 90%
families and schools together fast
Families and Schools Together (FAST)
  • Universal parenting programme for all 3-6 year old children especially in disadvantaged communities
  • Build relationships, social capital and protective factors for all parents, as all have stress sometimes
  • Support all parents in practicing positive parenting
  • Transition into school for all kindergarteners
  • If a parent comes once to FAST, 80% return for 8 weekly sessions & 22 monthly multi-family meetings
  • 86% of FAST parent graduates report having made a friend they see years later; reduce stress & isolation
randomised controlled trials on fast
Randomised Controlled Trials on FAST
  • Collaborations with other researchers from medicine, public health, sociology, psychology, who were interested in social work interventions
  • 4 RCTs on FAST completed with low income families
    • Abt Associates, (2001); Kratochwill, et al, (2004); McDonald et al, (2006), Kratochwill et al.(2009), Gamoran & Turley (2013)
    • Funding from NIH (NIDA, NICHD), SAMHSA, DOJ, DOE
  • Positive child behavioural and mental health outcomes over 1 and 2 years, across domains of child social ecology (child, family, school, community)
low drop out rates for low income parents
Low Drop Out Rates for Low Income Parents
  • FAST average drop out rate in Wales: only 18% drop out
  • Retention rates: if a family comes once, 80% expected to complete 6 or more of 8 weekly FAST meetings offered & then graduate to 22 parent-led monthly groups;
    • 72% teacher identified, inner city, low income, single parent, African American families with emotionally disturbed children, age 7
    • 80% Universal: rural, Indian reservations, low-income families of all first grade children and their families
    • 85% urban, Mexican American immigrants, low income, universal recruitment of all children
    • 90% universal for all first graders and 50% risk of special education with behavior problems; all low-income, mixed cultural backgrounds
teacher ratings of academic competence
Teacher Ratingsof Academic Competence

N=54

Kratochwill et al,(2004)Journal of School Psychology

slide17

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

reach into disadvantaged communities
Reach into Disadvantaged Communities
  • Over the past 10 years, the issue how to reach more families has been a focus
  • In 2003, the average number of FAST families who graduated per multi-family group was seven
  • First multi-hub FAST was tried: 7 per class=21
  • Replication was harder: grant for 10 sites, only half graduated 20 families, the other stayed at 7 families
  • Research study to increase reach and build social capital, universal recruitment brought 44 families per school, however, drop out rates were 49%
building local community social capital
Building Local Community ‘Social Capital’
  • James Coleman sociologist Univ of Chicago studied schools and developed a theory of social capital
  • Children know one another at school and children know their parents
  • If parents become friends with their children’s school friends, that is ’ intergenerational closure’, a powerful form of social capital
  • If the average parent at a school knows 4-5 other parents, that school has high social capital
  • If parents have shared expectations, the norms shift
nichd research study can fast build social capital and improve child outcomes
NICHD Research Study: Can FAST build social capital and Improve child outcomes

Phoenix

San Antonio

FAST

Control

statistical methods
Statistical Methods
  • FAST as an indicator of social capital
    • Intent to Treat: Two-Level Model
    • Treatment on the Treated: Two-Level Complier Average Causal Effect Model

Outcomes

Intervention

treatment on treatment fast graduates compared w similar families in control schools
Treatment on Treatment: FAST graduates compared w/ similar families in control schools
  • Across 52 schools, half had FAST; on average 44 families attended at least once
  • Across 26 randomly assigned control schools, there were no FAST sessions
  • Of the 22 families who completed FAST (5+ sessions) per school, characteristics were collated
  • In the control schools, a comparable group was created with similar characteristics
methods
Methods

Treatment on the treated

(TOT)

Intent to treat

(ITT)

FAST

Comparison

itt effects on social capital
ITT Effects on Social Capital

Social Capital

Intervention

25

tot effects on social capital
TOT Effects on Social Capital

Social Capital

Intervention

26

causal mediation of fast effects by intergenerational closure
Causal Mediation of FAST Effects by Intergenerational Closure

Outcomes

Social Capital

Intervention

causal mediation of fast effects by parents shared expectations
Causal Mediation of FAST Effects by Parents’ Shared Expectations

Outcomes

Social Capital

Intervention

why do retention rates and reach matter
Why Do Retention Rates and Reach Matter?
  • In Wales, Save the Children has introduced FAST into 13 disadvantaged communities
  • Whole families participate, and the benefits reach beyond the young focal child
  • The average number of families graduated per group was 18, for a total of 265 whole families served
  • The average retention rate was 82%
  • Family conflict reduced, child SDQ increased at home and school, parent school connections and parent to parent community connections increased
risk and protective factors of child poverty
Risk and Protective Factors of Child Poverty
  • Risk factors of child poverty
    • Poverty, lack of housing, employment, education, health services
    • Child: low shelter/food, poor parent-bonds, neglect, cognitive delays
    • Family has chronic stress, worries, anxiety about resources, conflict, violence, substance abuse, depression, mental health problems
    • Family is socially isolated from extended family, friends, neighbours
    • Family experiences social exclusion, racism, health disparities
    • Parents are oppressed, no control over own life, no respect, no voice
  • Protective factors:
    • For Child: quality of parent-child bond
    • For Child: one caring relationship over time to turn to when stressed
    • For Parent: social network of support; social capital; extended family
    • For Parent: feeling self-efficacious; empowered voice and agency
poverty child neglect high stress levels
Poverty, Child Neglect, High Stress Levels?
  • Poverty and stress may/or may not go hand and hand for parents and for their children
  • Stressed and isolated families have higher risk of neglecting a young child
  • Child neglect causes impaired learning, increased aggression, and risk of drug abuse
  • Child in poverty has more risk of neglect:
    • If family lives <$15,000 versus >$30,000, 44 times more likely the child is neglected
high stress effects a child s development
High Stress Effects a Child’s Development
  • Stress changes the brain and alters chemical neurotransmitters related to violence
  • Stress changes gene expression of child
  • If the high stress (high cortisol) is sustained over time it damages a child’s brain
  • High stress causes low immune systems and children get sick more often and heal slowly
  • High stress puts child into survival mode, and stressed children cannot learn new things: academics, mathematic, reading or writing
caring relationships can buffer the impact of high stress on a child s development
Caring Relationships Can Buffer the Impact of High Stress on a Child’s Development
  • Sustained high stress (cortisol) levels are destructive to a child’s brain development and other organs
  • 15 minutes of one to one responsive play reduces stress
  • High stress levels can be managed with a responsive parent who shows their love and
      • Notices child’s emotions and is tuned in to the child
      • Is available to the child under stress
      • Asks questions and listens
      • Is physically soothing and touches the child
      • Plays responsively with no bossing, and follows the child’s lead

(Sue Gerhardt, 2002,Why Love Matters)

high stress affects quality of parenting
High Stress affects Quality of Parenting
  • Cannot focus on child’s needs, emotionally intellectually
  • Not enough time, no time for seeing friends
  • Use of computers, mobile phones, TV
  • Employment insecurity, food insecurity, residential instability, transport insecurity, chronic stresses of poverty
  • Fear of inadequate medical and dental care
  • Trapped in a dangerous neighbourhood
  • Trapped in a dangerous relationship
  • Daily experience of stigma and social exclusion, racism
  • Feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, low sense of agency
    • Low hope and mood, low patience, irritability, distracted, anxious
new brain research pruning neurons
New Brain Research: Pruning Neurons
  • Adults have 80 billion neurons
  • Babies have 200 billion neurons
  • Neurological pruning happens repeatedly before the age of 15 years
  • Strong neural networks stay & are not pruned away
  • Use it or lose it!
  • One can always learn and improve, but it takes longer as you get older to shape new networks
words heard by young child
Words Heard by Young Child

Words heard by hour week year

Low income 616 62,000 3 million

Working class 1251 125,000 6 million

Professional 2153 215,000 11 million

What you hear, how you talk, how you read and write

ages of neurological pruning

Ages of Neurological Pruning

3 years

3 months

6 months

12 months

9 months

ages of neurological pruning1

Ages of Neurological Pruning

9 years

12 years

6 years

15 years

community organizing social capital vs poverty and family stress vs child neglect
Community Organizing, Social Capital vs. Poverty and Family Stress vs. Child Neglect
  • Chronic stress and social isolation may increase child neglect: stresses of poverty and social exclusion reduce parents’ ability to be responsive and parent positively
  • Community organizing reduces stresses of poverty
      • Social ties and inclusion buffer stress and enhance parent leadership which leads to more positive parenting and less child neglect

Community Development

Reduces Family Stress

Reduces Child Neglect

fast builds protective factors against stress relationships
FAST Builds Protective Factors Against Stress: Relationships
  • Strengthening family unit
  • Parent-child bond
  • Parent-to-parent bond
  • Empowered parent group
  • Parent to community and school

Multi-systemic, multi-family groups with repeated informal positive exchanges

partnership and respect engages parents
Partnership and Respect Engages Parents
  • Values of respect shifts power into shared governance
    • Service user involvement in partnership with professionals
    • Multi-systemic. social ecological, local contextual interventions
    • Anti-oppressive and anti-discriminatory practice
  • Focus on quality of relationships with coaching and support in multi-family groups of parent leadership
    • Between individuals, parent-child bonds, within families,
    • Lead groups of professionals in multi-agency working
    • With socially marginalized, low income parents: social inclusion
  • Systemic strategies to build social capital, community
    • Social cohesion, social trust, networking and social inclusion
    • Coleman, 1988: ‘intergenerational closure in schools’
parents co produce fast groups
Parents Co-Produce FAST Groups
  • Respect for parent role and knowledge at every level of the FAST programme: ‘nothing about us without us’
  • Parents participate in training and planning FAST: co-production with multi-agency professionals: 60% flexible
  • Parents are on FAST teams leading multi-family groups
  • Parents are coached to be in charge of their own family
  • Parents are given time to form informal social networks
  • Parents graduates plan the monthly ongoing meetings
  • Parent interview panel for evaluation FAST certification
  • Over time, FAST parent graduates run local FAST groups
applies 10 theories 24 studies in multi family groups which parents can lead
Applies 10 Theories & 24 Studies in Multi-Family Groups Which Parents Can Lead
  • Parent groups are built on Paulo Friere’s ideas of adult education groups in low income communities and these connected small groups are empowering
  • Family activities are led by parents coached and supported based on Minuchin’s family systems theory empowering executive subsystem of parents
  • 1 -1 responsive play (attachment theory-Bowlby)
  • Parents ask children to do small tasks as ‘imbedded compliance requests’ (social learning theory)
  • Family school and community (social ecology theory)
social ecological theory of child development bronfenbrenner

Social ecological theory of child development (Bronfenbrenner)

child

NICHD Social Capital FAST Project

social ecological theory of child development bronfenbrenner1

Social ecological theory of child development (Bronfenbrenner)

child

family

NICHD Social Capital FAST Project

social ecological theory of child development bronfenbrenner2

Social ecological theory of child development (Bronfenbrenner)

child

school

family

NICHD Social Capital FAST Project

social ecological theory of child development bronfenbrenner3

Social ecological theory of child development (Bronfenbrenner)

child

neighborhood

school

family

NICHD Social Capital FAST Project

social ecological theory of child development bronfenbrenner4

Social ecological theory of child development (Bronfenbrenner)

child

neighborhood

school

family

slide60

Substance

Abuse

School

Parent

Liaison

Mental Health

slide61

Substance

Abuse

School

Social Capital

Parent

Liaison

Mental Health

positive and flexible fast groups approach
Positive and Flexible FAST Groups Approach
  • Flexible and ‘manualized’ FAST programme enables ‘deep’ local cultural adaptations of 60% of processes
  • Positive parenting programme for child well-being
    • Positive parent-led family activities for experiential learning with weekly repetitions, with coaching and support by team
    • Structured and sequenced parent led family activities interrupt family conflict and boredom, increases parental efficacy
    • Positive experiences of parental mastery of repeated activities and routines, reduces family conflict and violence at home
    • Strengths based: values are that ‘every parent loves their child’
    • Positive energy with families singing, drawing, crafts, laughing, talking and playing together and building trust over time
quality assurance structures
Quality Assurance Structures
  • Trained teams supervised to lead multi-family groups by Certified FAST Trainers/Supervisors
  • Teams have parents and multi-agency professionals who culturally represent the families being served
  • Quality of implementation checklists used weekly
  • Three site visits with direct observation in 8 weeks
  • Program Integrity Checklists reviewed for drfit
  • Pre and post questionnaires for quantitative outcome
  • Qualitative evaluations with parents, teachers,
  • Recertification after three years
fast experiential learning
FAST & Experiential Learning
  • Meal at family tables
  • Family sing-a-long/greetings
  • Family crafts
  • Family communication exercises
  • Buddy time/parent support group meeting
  • Children’s structured activities
  • One to one “responsive play time”
  • Winning as a family/cooking as a family
  • Closing Circle-Announcements
experiential learning through coaching and supporting parents to lead family activities
Experiential learning through coaching and supporting parents to lead family activities

Family Scribbles Game

Family Flag

Feeling Charades

fast as evidence based practice
FAST as Evidence based Practice
  • UN United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (2010)
    • Family skills Programme (FAST is number 11 of 23 on RCTs)
    • FAST is probably best on retention rates of parents in poverty
  • UK National Academy of Parenting Practitioners
    • Amongst top ten parenting programmes in UK
  • US government lists for evidence based practice
    • Child abuse and neglect prevention
    • Child mental health promotion
    • Substance abuse prevention
    • Juvenile delinquency prevention
    • I3 Dept of Education: to reduce educational inequality in USA
it takes a village to raise a child traditional african proverb
“It takes a village to raise a child”Traditional African Proverb

applies theory & research to build that village for all young children by empowering parents in Wales with Communities First and Save the Children-Wales

slide74

For more information on the FAST programme in Wales, please contact:

Mererid Lewis, Head of Programmes,

Save the Children Wales

Email: m.lewis@savethechildren.org.uk

Tel: 029 2039 6838