Indian PaintingB.A. II Dr. O. P. Parameswaran, Assistant Professor, Department of Fine Arts, Post Graduate Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh.
Unit-1: History of Indian Painting (BA-3) • 1. Rajasthani Painting: • 1.3:- Nayika from Kishangarh
1.3 Nayika from Kishangarh ( Rajasthan) • Introduction: • Paintings belong to Kishangarh school are considered to be the best miniature paintings of Rajasthan are ever produced. • Nayika from Kishangarh is the best example of the above mention. This painting is also known as the “Portrait of Radhha”.
Kishangarh is situated from 60 miles from North West of Bundi. • Its ruler Raja Sawant Singh (1748-1757) a great devotee of Krishna wrote many poems under the pen named NagriDass. • He fell in love with a maid in his step mother’s entourage called Banithani (‘smart and well dressed’). • She too was well-versed in poetry.
In 1757, she accompanied him to Brindavan where he died seven years later. • Soon after his death the best Kishangarh paintings were produced. • Their Hallmark is new and beautiful type of Radhha and Krishna. • The artist Nihaal Chand is credited with the creation of this distinctive type of Banithanias Radhha and Sawant Singh as the Krishna.
The style • Unlike Mewar & Bundi the Kishangarh School never underwent the gradual process of maturation starting from the popular Mughal inspiration. • Instead, elongated figurative stylization of the late Aurangzeb period & the lyrically mannered idiom of the Muhammad Shah Era provided the basic pattern which was modified according to the requirement of Nagri Das’s poetry.
In the portrait of Banithani as Radhha as Nayika her long eyes, narrower than the Jodhpur type and tinged with a lotus pink hue, curve upwards in this picture of Radhha& Nayika face is unique in the exaggerated arch of the eye brows, the decorative curls of hair spiraling down the cheek; in front of the ear. • The long straight nose, thin lips, pronounced chin and a slender neck.
A few paintings exist in which this special mannerism is reserved for Radhha and Krishna while others accompany have normal facial structures. • All these paintings are done in usual size (as much as 19 by14 inch, or 46 by 36 centimeters).
When Nihaal Chand painted the “Portrait of Radhha & Krishna”, he was the image of Sawant Singh and Banithani in his mind and the same image created his unique style and physiognomy (feature of a person). • The divine lovers Radha & Krishna are portrayed with the greatest beauty and refinement, often in court surroundings. • The principle figures are almost tiny compared with the vastness of their city
The “Boat Of Love” is a best example for above mention. • There are two different scenes depicted together in this painting. • In the upper part of this painting Radha & Krishna along with their companions are shown on a boat ride. • The excellently painted details of the architectural forms of the Kishangarh palace are shown at a backside of the lake.
Around them are the most dramatic twilight with darkening clouds. • The other scene in the lower part of the composition shows Radha & Krishna meeting at a secret place. • The emotionally filled with Radha and Krishna looking at each other. • Krishna holds up a garland in his left hand. • They are surrounded by a thick forest.
The very distinctive face by no means deserves for the divine pair; exotic almost bizarre with enormous eyes and abrupt long chins. • They went on to become one of the cliches of latter day Kishangarh paintings.