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KOMUNIKASI WIRELESS. Sukiswo sukiswok@yahoo.com. Pendahuluan. Tujuan : menjelaskan dasar-dasar komunikasi wireless. Outline. Komunikasi Wireless / Nirkabel Pemanfaatan Komunikasi Nirkabel Macam2 Komunikasi Nirkabel Standard Komunikasi Nirkabel Evolusi Komunikasi Nirkabel

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Komunikasi wireless

KOMUNIKASI WIRELESS

Sukiswo

sukiswok@yahoo.com

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Pendahuluan
Pendahuluan

  • Tujuan : menjelaskan dasar-dasar komunikasi wireless

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Outline
Outline

  • Komunikasi Wireless / Nirkabel

  • Pemanfaatan Komunikasi Nirkabel

  • Macam2 Komunikasi Nirkabel

  • Standard Komunikasi Nirkabel

  • Evolusi Komunikasi Nirkabel

  • Kontent & Aplikasi

  • Spektrum Frekuensi

  • Frekuensi Carrier / Kanal

  • Mode Komunikasi

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Komunikasi nirkabel
Komunikasi Nirkabel

  • Sistem Komunikasi menggunakan frekuensi/spektrum radio, yang memungkinkan transmisi (pengiriman/penerimaan) informasi (suara, data, gambar, video) tanpa koneksi fisik

  • Dibedakan dari sistem transmisi yang memerlukan koneksi fisik, seperti kabel/kawat tembaga atau fiber optik

  • Bersifat tetap (fixed) atau bergerak (mobile)

  • Dibatasi oleh ketersediaan spektrum (pita frekuensi), karena adanya interferensi (saling mengganggu) jika digunakan bersama

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Komunikasi nirkabel1
Komunikasi Nirkabel

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Komunikasi nirkabel2
Komunikasi Nirkabel

  • Komunikasi menggunakan gelombang elektromagnetik

  • Gelombang elektromagnetik

    • Kecepatan cahaya (c = 3x108 m/s)

    • Memiliki frekuensi (f) dan panjang gelombang (l)

      • c = f x l

  • Penggunaan frekuensi lebih tinggi umumnya medium meredam lebih besar

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Komunikasi nirkabel3
Komunikasi Nirkabel

  • Dapat dilakukan “dimana saja” (mobile)

  • Bisa bersifat lebih personal

  • Dibatasi oleh sifat antarmuka terminal:

    • Layar kecil (ponsel) sampai menengah (laptop)

    • Tombol terbatas

    • Daya terbatas

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Klasifikasi komunikasi nirkabel
Klasifikasi Komunikasi Nirkabel

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Pemanfaatan teknologi nirkabel
Pemanfaatan Teknologi Nirkabel

  • Layanan Bersifat tetap (fixed):

    • Penggunaan sekitar rumah (Cordless-DECT)

    • Sambungan lokal (wireless local loop-WLL)

    • Bluetooth: jarak pendek, kecepatan rendah

    • WiFi: jarang menengah, kecepatan cukup tinggi

    • WIMAX: jarak jauh, kecepatan tinggi

    • Satellite: jangkauan luas, kecepatan menengah

    • RFID: jangkauan sangat kecil

  • Layanan Bersifat bergerak (mobile):

    • Limited Mobility (Flexi)

    • Cellular (GSM, CDMA, 3G)

    • Satellite (GMPCS)

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Macam2 teknologi nirkabel

Degree of mobility

UMTS

Driving

CDMA

Systems

beyond 3G

>2010

GSMGPRS

UMTS

Walking

HSDPA

EV-DO

EV-DV

EDGE

IEEE802.16e

FlashOFDM (802.20)

Standing

DECT

WLAN(IEEE 802.11x)

IEEE802.16a,d

BlueTooth

0.1

1

10

100

Mbps

User data rate

Macam2 Teknologi Nirkabel

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Standard nirkabel

RFID

(AutoID Center)

Sensors

IEEE 802.15.4

(Zigbee Alliance)

(BAN)

BAN: Body Area Network

RAN

IEEE 802.22

WAN

3GPP (GPRS/UMTS)

3GPP2 (1X--/CDMA2000)

GSMA, OMA

IEEE 802.20

IEEE 802.16e

MAN

IEEE 802.21, IEEE 802.18 802.19

IEEE 802.16d WiMAX

ETSI HiperMAN & HIPERACCESS

LAN

ETSI-BRAN HiperLAN2

IEEE 802.11

Wi-Fi Alliance

PAN

IEEE 802.15.3 UWB, Bluetooth

Wi-Media, BTSIG, MBOA

ETSI HiperPAN

Standard Nirkabel

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


1st Generation

2nd Generation

3rd Generation

4th Generation

Generation

(Cellular)

Voice & High speed data

Multimedia

Analog voice

Digital voice &

Low rate data

ALL-IP Broadband

Ubiquitous & Seamless

WLAN++

1000

WLAN+

802.11n, etc.

4G

Maximum transmission rate

TRmax(Mbps)

WiMAX

100

UWB, etc.

WLAN

802.11a,HiSWANa,

HIPERLAN2, etc.

3G+

HSDPA,

cdma2000(3X), etc.

Nomadic

10

Bluetooth, etc.

3G

W-CDMA,

Cdma2000, etc.

1

Local

0.1

2G+

PDC,GSM,PHS, etc.

Mobile

2G

PDC,GSM,PHS, etc.

0.01

~1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Year

System Evolution Scenario

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Gsm evolution
GSM Evolution

GSM CS

Up to 9,6 Kbps

GSM GPRS

Up to 115 kbps

UMTS

Up to 2 Mbps

or 384 in mobility

GSM HSCSD

Up to 38,4kbps

2G

3G

2.5G

EDGE

Operators prefer choose direct going to GPRS technology rather than going to

GSM HSCSD technology because no HSCSD handset availability and short time stage

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Cdma standards evolution
CDMA Standards Evolution

IS-2000 1X 144 Kbps

600 Kbps peak

IS-95A CDMA

Voice, packet-

9.6/14.4 Kbps

IS-95B CDMA

Voice, packet-

64 Kbps

IS-2000 1XEV-DO

600 Kbps; 2.4 Kbps peak

IS-2000 1XEV-DV

2-5 Mbps peak

All IP

CDMA2000 PCN/Mobile IP

CDMA2000

Interworking function

cdmaOne

Source: CDMA2000-A world view

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Imt 2000 family of standards
IMT-2000 (Family of Standards)

IMT-2000 Terrestrial

Radio Interfaces

IMT-2000

CDMA

Direct Spread

IMT-2000

CDMA

Multi Carrier

IMT-2000

CDMA

TDD

IMT-2000

TDMA

Single Carrier

IMT-2000

FDMA/

TDMA

WCDMA

(UMTS)

CDMA2000

1X and 3X

UTRA TDD

And TD-SCDMA

UWC-136/

EDGE

DECT

CDMA

TDMA

FDMA

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Content aplikasi
Content & Aplikasi

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Spektrum frekuensi

104

102

100

10-2

10-4

10-6

10-8

10-10

10-12

10-14

10-16

Radio

Spectrum

Microwave

IR

UV

X-Rays

Cosmic

Rays

104

106

108

1010

1012

1014

1016

1018

1020

1022

1024

1MHz ==100m100MHz ==1m

10GHz ==1cm

Visible light

< 30 KHz VLF30-300KHz LF

300KHz – 3MHz MF3 MHz – 30MHz HF 30MHz – 300MHz VHF

300 MHz – 3GHz UHF

3-30GHz SHF

> 30 GHz EHF

Spektrum frekuensi

Alokasi Frekeunsi !

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Contoh panjang gelombang
Contoh : panjang gelombang

  • GSM :

    • Frekuensi ~= 900 Mhz

    • Panjang gelombang ~= 33cm

  • PCS

    • Frekuensi ~= 1.8 Ghz

    • Panjang gelombang ~= 17.5 cm

  • Bluetooth:

    • Frekuensi ~= 2.4Gz

    • Panjang gelombang ~= 12.5cm

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Frequency carrier kanal
Frequency Carrier/Kanal

  • Informasi yang dikirim menuju receiver dilewatkan pada band frekuensi tertentu.

    • Disebut sebagai kanal (channel)

  • Tiap kanal memiliki bandwidth yang tetap (dalam KHz) dan kapasitas (bit-rate)

  • Band frekuensi yang berbeda (atau kanal) dapat digunakan untuk mentransmisikan informasi secara paralel dan independen (konsep multiple access).

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Example
Example

  • Assume a spectrum of 90KHz is allocated over a base frequency b for communication between stations A and B

  • Assume each channel occupies 30KHz.

  • There are 3 channels

  • Each channel is simplex (Transmission occurs in one way)

  • For full duplex communication:

    • Use two different channels (front and reverse channels)

    • Use time division in a channel

Station A

Channel 1 (b - b+30)

Station B

Channel 2 (b+30 - b+60)

Channel 3 (b+60 - b+90)

TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


Simplex communication
Simplex Communication

  • Normally, on a channel, a station can transmit only in one way.

    • This is called simplex transmision

  • To enable two-way communication (called full-duplex communication)

    • We can use Frequency Division Multiplexing

    • We can use Time Division Multiplexing

  • TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


    Duplex communication fdd
    Duplex Communication - FDD

    • FDD: Frequency Division Duplex

    Base Station

    B

    Mobile Terminal

    M

    Forward Channel

    Reverse Channel

    Forward Channel and Reverse Channel use different frequency

    bands

    TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


    Duplex communication tdd
    Duplex Communication - TDD

    • TDD: Time Division Duplex

    Base Station

    B

    Mobile Terminal

    M

    M

    B

    M

    B

    M

    B

    A singe frequency channel is used. The channel is divided into time slots. Mobile station and base station transmits on the time slots alternately.

    TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


    Example frequency spectrum allocation in u s cellular radio service
    Example - Frequency Spectrum Allocation in U.S. Cellular Radio Service

    Reverse Channel

    Forward Channel

    991

    992

    1023

    1

    2

    799

    991

    992

    1023

    1

    2

    799

    824-849 MHz

    869-894 MHz

    Channel Number

    Center Frequency (MHz)

    Reverse Channel 1 <=N <= 799

    991 <= N <= 1023

    0.030N + 825.0

    0.030(N-1023) + 825.0

    Forward Channel 1 <=N <= 799

    991 <= N <= 1023

    0.030N + 870.0

    0.030(N-1023) + 870.0

    (Channels 800-990 are unused)

    Channel bandwidth is 45 MHz

    TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


    What is mobility
    What is Mobility Radio Service

    • Initially Internet and Telephone Networks is designed assuming the user terminals are static

      • No change of location during a call/connection

      • A user terminals accesses the network always from a fixed location

  • Mobility and portability

    • Portability means changing point of attachment to the network offline

    • Mobility means changing point of attachment to the network online

  • TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


    Degrees of mobility
    Degrees of Mobility Radio Service

    • Walking Users

      • Low speed

      • Small roaming area

      • Usually uses high-bandwith/low-latency access

  • Vehicles

    • High speeds

    • Large roaming area

    • Usually uses low-bandwidth/high-latency access

    • Uses sophisticated terminal equipment (cell phones)

  • TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


    The need for wireless mobile networking
    The Need for Wireless/Mobile Networking Radio Service

    • Demand for Ubiquitous Computing

      • Anywhere, anytime computing and communication

        • You don’t have to go to the lab to check your email

      • Pushing the computers more into background

        • Focus on the task and life, not on the computer

        • Use computers seamlesslyto help you and to make your life more easier.

      • Computers should be location aware

        • Adapt to the current location, discover services

    TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT


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