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Anatomy and Physiology- Part I

Anatomy and Physiology- Part I. Anatomy of Small Animals. Basic Anatomy Terminology. Cheek- the fleshy side of the face below the eye and above and to the side of the mouth Dewlap- the loose fold of skin under the chin of an animal, most prominent in female rabbits. Basic Anatomy Terminology.

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Anatomy and Physiology- Part I

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  1. Anatomy and Physiology- Part I Anatomy of Small Animals

  2. Basic Anatomy Terminology • Cheek- the fleshy side of the face below the eye and above and to the side of the mouth • Dewlap- the loose fold of skin under the chin of an animal, most prominent in female rabbits

  3. Basic Anatomy Terminology • Elbow- the upper joint of the front leg just below the shoulder • Flank- the fleshy part of the side between the ribs and the rump (croup)

  4. Basic Anatomy Terminology • Foot pad- the part of the foot that the animal walks on • Forearm- the part of the front limb just below the elbow

  5. Basic Anatomy Terminology • Guard hairs- the longer, coarse hairs above the shorter under-fur of an animal that protects the animal and under-fur from rain and cold • Hock- the tarsal joint or large joint halfway up the hind limb

  6. Basic Anatomy Terminology • Loin- the fleshy part of the sides of an animal just below the spinal column (sometimes used interchangeably with flank) • Muzzle- the projecting jaw that contains the nose and mouth in some animals

  7. Basic Anatomy Terminology • Nose pad- the tip of the nose that may be sensitive and useful for investigating food, water, or unfamiliar objects (called nose leather in cats) • Rump- the upper rounded part of the hindquarter (also called the croup)

  8. Basic Anatomy Terminology • Shoulder- the part of an animal’s body just above the elbow of the foreleg • Stifle- the joint next above the hock in the hind leg of a four footed animal

  9. Basic Anatomy Terminology • Thigh- the hind limb extending from the rump to the hock • Whiskers- the long projecting hairs or bristles growing near the mouth of an animal

  10. Birds • Crown- the topmost part of the head • Ear covert- the feathers covering the ears • Mandible- the upper or lower segment of a bill of a bird

  11. Birds • Nape- the back of the neck • Orbital ring- a ring encircling the eye of many birds

  12. Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles • Brille- the transparent layer permanently covering the eye that serves as the eyelid for snakes • Fins- the web of skin supported with bone or cartilage rods that enable a fish to move through the water

  13. Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles • Gills- The major organ of the respiratory system of fish that allows them to breath without lungs

  14. Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles • Scales- extensions of the epidermal layer of skin that have been modified to provide protection. (Fish and reptiles may have some type of scales) • Scutes- epidermal scales found on turtles

  15. Skeletal System- Bones • Axial skeleton- vertebral column, ribs, sternum, and skull • Pectoral limb- front limbs including shoulders, legs and feet. Bones are scapula(shoulder blade), humerus (arm), radius and ulna (forearm), carpals, metacarpals and phalanges (toes)


  17. Skeletal system • Pelvic limb- rear legs and pelvic bones including hooks, pin bones, femur (upper leg bone), tibia and fibula (lower leg bones), tarsals (hocks), metatarsals (feet), and phalanges (toes)

  18. Skeletal system • Purposes- protect vital body organs and give form or shape to body • Skull protects brain, ribs protect lungs and internal organs • Spinal column or backbone protects the spinal cord and provides shape to the animal

  19. Skeletal system • Structure consist of bones, cartilage and joints

  20. Skeletal system • Birds have some unique bones unlike mammals • Most birds have a skull bone that elongates toward the front of the head • Some birds have a skull with an upper beak fused to it while other birds have hinged on both upper and lower (mandibles) giving it more flexibility

  21. Major organs and systems • Heart- major organ in the circulatory system • 3 muscle layers • Myocardium- second layer muscle that makes up the thickness of the heart

  22. Circulatory System • Endocardium- thin layer inside myocardium • Epicardium- thin cover over the myocardium • Other parts of the circulatory system are the arteries, capillaries, veins and blood

  23. Circulatory System • Moves nutrients, metabolic waste, and oxygen around the body • Protects against microbes and injury

  24. Kidneys and bladder • Part of the excretory system that rids the body of waste • Kidneys maintain chemical composition, volume of blood, and tissue fluid

  25. Stomach and intestines • Major part of digestive system, which breaks the food down into smaller pieces to be used by the body • Nutrients are gleaned from these food materials

  26. Lungs • Part of the respiratory system where the oxygen is taken in by the nose, passed on to the lungs and then goes into the blood

  27. Nervous system • Brains, spinal cord, and nerves • Coordinator of all body activities, regulates other systems, and controls memory and learning

  28. Reproductive system • Ovaries and testes • Help produce new individuals of the same species • Ovaries produce eggs and testes produce sperm

  29. Muscular system • Muscles • Gives the body its movement, posture, support, and produces heat

  30. THE END

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