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Feedback and Improvement in Student Learning. Helen Timperley Professor of Education The University of Auckland New Zealand. Auckland. Wellington. Christchurch. Overview of Presentation. Feedback and its power Challenges for teachers

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Feedback and improvement in student learning

Feedback and Improvement in Student Learning

Helen Timperley

Professor of Education

The University of Auckland

New Zealand


Feedback and improvement in student learning

  • Wellington

  • Christchurch


Overview of presentation
Overview of Presentation

  • Feedback and its power

  • Challenges for teachers

  • An inquiry and knowledge building cycle for improvement


Feedback
Feedback

  • Information provided by someone or something to a learner about aspects of performance or understanding

    • Feedback follows teaching

    • May be seen as new teaching when it fills gap between what is understood and what is aimed to be understood


Influences on achievement hattie 2009
Influences on Achievement ? (Hattie, 2009)

0

Decreased

Zero

Enhanced


The typical influence on achievement hattie 2009
The typical influence on achievement (Hattie, 2009)

The typical effect across

  • 800+ meta-analysis

  • 50,000 studies, and

  • 200+ million students


Effect on achievement over time
Effect on Achievement over time?

Typical Effect Size

0

.20

1.0

.40

Decreased

Zero

Enhanced


Where feedback fits hattie 2009
Where feedback fits (Hattie, 2009)

1 Acceleration (speed up a year) .88

2 Feedback .73

3 Student-teacher relationships .72

  • Teaching study skills .59

  • Cooperative learning .41

  • Homework .29

  • Mentoring .15

  • Ability grouping .12

    9 Retention (hold back a year) -.16


The power of feedback
The Power of Feedback

  • Comes from being embedded in strategies involving:

    • Student self-report grades (Rank 1)

    • Formative evaluation (Rank 3)

    • Teacher clarity (Rank 8)

  • But not all feedback promotes student learning


What feedback would you give to this student parr timperley 2010
What feedback would you give to this student? (Parr & Timperley, 2010)

  • Learning objective: To learn how to structure a recount (an account of some event that has occurred)

  • Intended audience and purpose: Tell your friends in an interesting way about a trip you have been on

    • This student wrote about a trip to Sydney and Brisbane (Australia)

  • Write down two pieces of feedback you would give to this student


Feedback and improvement in student learning

Hi I am at home planning my next trip to synedy and Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

day I am going to stay in syned for a week and I am going to stay in Brisburnd for a week with

my mum’s flat mate. When I went over to synedy las time I met rua hes a dog of chris’s. Chris is one of marys flat mate now last time when I went there I had to count his money. Then there is nan she has 3 children one is around 14 years old the seoncod is 2 years old and the youngst child is nine mothes old. Then I went to Brisbured. When I got to Synedy I am going to go to all this fantsey parks and and I am going to stay in a hotal.


Feedback can be detrimental
Feedback can be detrimental Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

  • When it does not give information about how to improve, for example:

    • Tentative grades with no comments

    • Feedback associated with extrinsic rewards

    • Personal praise / criticism that distracts from the task

My day is boring and I don’t know what this assignment is about.

D-

You are so clever


Feedback and improvement in student learning

Purpose Brisbaned for Christmas and New years – to reduce discrepancy between current understandings and a desired goal

Ways to reduce the discrepancy

Increase effort or abandon goal

Answers three questions

Where am I going? How am I going? Where to next?

Self- Regulation

Task

Task

Process

Self


Feedback and improvement in student learning

Purpose Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

To reduce discrepancies between current understandings / performance and a desired goal

  • Key conditions:

  • Students must have a learning goal

    • Answers the question, “Where am I going?

  • Most effective when goals are specific and challenging but not too difficult


Feedback and improvement in student learning

  • Key conditions:

  • Teachers work with students to identify appropriate challenging and specific goals

  • Teachers assist students to reach them through effective learning strategies

  • “Where to next?”


Feedback and improvement in student learning

Students Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

Students

Answers three questions

Where am I going? Goal

How am I going? Feedback

Where to next? Feed-forward


Feedback and improvement in student learning

Each feedback question works at four levels Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

How well the tasks are understood / performed

Task level

The main processes needed to understand / perform tasks

Process level

Self Regulation

Self-monitoring, directing

and regulation of actions

Personal evaluations and affect (usually positive) about the learner

Self level


Feedback and improvement in student learning

Hi I am at home planning my next trip to synedy and Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

day I am going to stay in syned for a week and I am going to stay in Brisburnd for a week with

my mum’s flat mate. When I went over to synedy las time I met rua hes a dog of chris’s. Chris is one of marys flat mate now last time when I went there I had to count his money. Then there is nan she has 3 children one is around 14 years old the seoncod is 2 years old and the youngs child is nine mothes old. Then I went to Brisbured. When I got to Synedy I am going to go to all this fantsey parks and and I am going to stay in a hotal.


How would your feedback have scored
How Would Your Feedback Have Scored? Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

For a high score (on our rubric):

  • Feedback provides an indication of:

    • Extent to which the writer met the learning objective (structuring recounts)

    • Extent to which writing had features associated with audience and purpose for writing (friends about an interesting trip)

    • What action the writer could take to improve


The research results
The Research Results Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

  • 49 teachers

  • Relationship between the quality of feedback score and gains in student achievement on a nationally normed measure of writing (asTTle) highly significant (r=.685, p<.01)


A second study timperley parr 2009
A second study Brisbaned for Christmas and New years(Timperley & Parr, 2009)

In a professional development project we examined extent to which teachers were explicit about and students understood

  • Learning objectives

  • Success criteria

  • Feedback

  • Feed forward

  • 15 teachers, observed lessons (with microphones), students interviewed


  • Teachers learning sequence
    Teachers’ Learning Sequence Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

    • Clarity of learning objectives and success criteria developed first for teachers (and understood by students)

    • Found personal praise difficult to stop;

    • Feedback about task & process rare;

    • Feed forward almost non-non-existent


    Learning how to give feedback in ways that promote student learning
    Learning How to Give Feedback in Ways that Promote Student Learning

    • Requires that teachers’ professional learning is carefully scaffolded over time (in the same way as student learning)

      • Teachers identify learning goals with students

      • Identify own professional learning goals about feedback practice for themselves (in relation to students’ learning goals)

      • Seek feedback from students and leaders on their progress

      • Readjust their feedback practice

      • And so on ...


    Feedback and improvement in student learning

    Timperley, H. (2008) Teacher Professional Learning and Development. International Academy of Education. International Bureau of Education. Paris: UNESCO


    Feedback and improvement in student learning

    Teacher inquiry and knowledge-building cycle Development. International Academy of Education. International Bureau of Education. Paris: UNESCO

    to promote student outcomes for teachers

    What knowledge and skills do our students need?

    What knowledge and skills do we as teachers need?

    What has been the impact of our changed actions?

    Deepen professional knowledge and refine skills

    Engage students in new learning experiences


    Feedback and improvement in student learning

    Deepen student and professional learning focus Development. International Academy of Education. International Bureau of Education. Paris: UNESCO

    Re-assess students’ knowledge and skills

    Professionals refine feedback practices

    Observe how students respond (Prof feedback)

    Professionals assisted to Identify feedback practices and new skills required

    Assess students’ knowledge and skills

    Relationship between professional and student learning


    Feedback and improvement in student learning

    Students Development. International Academy of Education. International Bureau of Education. Paris: UNESCO

    Principals

    Teachers

    Feedback and Improvement


    For rest of the day think about how teachers can inquire and build knowledge
    For Rest of the Day: Think about How Teachers Can Inquire and Build Knowledge

    • High stakes testing and student learning

    • National Monitoring system

    • Criteria development with teachers

    • Macro or micro assessment policy

    • Assessment in Curriculum of Excellence

    • Developing an ‘assessment for learning’ culture