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Survey of International Best Practices to Accommodate Older Road Users. March 2008. Presentation Overview. Scan sponsors, team, and purpose Older Road User Issues in the U.S. Scan itinerary and countries visited General Findings Recommendations and next steps. Scan Sponsors.

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Presentation Transcript
presentation overview
Presentation Overview
  • Scan sponsors, team, and purpose
  • Older Road User Issues in the U.S.
  • Scan itinerary and countries visited
  • General Findings
  • Recommendations and next steps
scan sponsors
Scan Sponsors
  • U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT)
  • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
  • National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)
international technology scanning program
International Technology Scanning Program

“…means to access innovative technologies and practices in other countries that could significantly improve highways and highway transportation services in the United States.”

who are we
Who are we ?

Tom Smith, FHWA West Virginia Division Office

Barry Warhoftig,

West Virginia State DOT

Thomas Granda,

FHWA Research Cntr.

Pamela Hutton, Co-Chair

Colorado State DOT

Elizabeth Alicandri, Co-Chair

FHWA Office of Safety

Leanna DepueMissouri State DOT

David Harkey,

University of North Carolina

Susan Chrysler

Texas Transportation Institute

Howard Glassman,

Florida Metropolitan Planning Organization Advisory Council


Warhoftig Granda Smith Glassman Harkey

Chrysler Hutton Depue Alicandri


What is the Problem ?

Fatality Rate by Age per 100 M VMT


What is the Problem ?

Graying of the US population



Age Brackets

(5 year increments)





what has the u s done for older road users
What has the U.S. done for older road users?
  • 1988 - TRB Transportation in an Aging Society
  • 1997 - FHWA Older Driver Highway Design Handbook & Guidelines
  • 1999 - FHWA Older Road User Workshops
  • 2000 & 2003 - Revised Highway Standards
    • Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
    • AASHTO Green Book
what has the u s done for older road users1
What has the U.S. done for older road users?
  • 2001 – Revised FHWA Handbook
  • 2003 - AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan Implementation
  • 2003 – Safe Mobility for Maturing Society – Challenges and Opportunities
  • 2004 - Travel Better, Travel Longer Pocket Guide
  • 2004 – A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Older Drivers
where did we go






Where did we go ?

March 12 - 16

March 8 - 12

March 1 - 4

March 5 -8

why australia and japan
Why Australia and Japan ?
  • Similar demographic age distribution
    • Percent of population over age 65 in 2030
      • US: 19.7 %
      • Australia: 21.5 %
      • Japan: 30 %
  • Better safety record than US
    • Traffic fatality rates per 100,000 population
      • US: 14.24
      • Australia: 9.3
      • Japan: 6.7
what did we hope to learn
Strategies to plan for increases in older road users

Innovations in infrastructure design to assist older road users

Research topics specific to older road users issues

What did we hope to learn?
  • Aging of society is a global issue
  • Safety must be emphasized at highest levels of government
  • Local Government involvement in implementing safety plans is critical
  • Systems approach
  • Data are used for planning, policy, and evaluation
  • Improving safety for Older Road Users improves safety for all and vice versa
  • Removing driving privileges prematurely has unintended consequences
  • Infrastructure and operational changes hold great promise for improving safety for older road users
  • Mobility options are critical for continued quality of life
general road safety initiatives
General Road Safety Initiatives
  • Systems Approach to Safety through Strategic Plans
  • Focus on reducing crash severity
    • Speed Enforcement
    • Speed Zones during times of high pedestrian activity
    • Pedestrian fencing
  • Innovative partnerships with local governments, community groups, and automobile clubs
example of systems approach strategic planning
Example of Systems Approach: Strategic Planning

Victoria’s Arrive Alive initiatives include:

  • Road users
    • Education & enforcement
      • Alcohol
      • Speed
      • Fatigue
      • Drugs
      • Inexperience
  • Road and roadsides
    • Infrastructure
  • Vehicle Safety

Slide 18

example of systems approach speed reduction
Example of Systems Approach: Speed Reduction
  • Speed Zoning
    • In high pedestrian areas
    • At times of high pedestrian activity
  • Public Education
  • Automated Enforcement

Speed Zoning in High Pedestrian Areas

Entertainment Zone in Brisbane

School Zone in Sydney Suburb

policy and planning issues
Policy and Planning Issues
  • Safety is critical issue at highest levels of government
  • Aspirational and practical goals
  • Integrated data from multiple sources used for:
    • Policy development
    • Planning decisions
    • Program evaluation
infrastructure improvements for older road users
Infrastructure Improvements for Older Road Users
  • Intersections
    • Left turn signals exclusive phase
    • Dedicated turn lanes
    • Geometric Design
intersection improvements
Intersection Improvements
  • Turn Signal Phasing to eliminate go / no-go decision
intersection improvements1
Intersection Improvements
  • Changes to intersection geometric design to accommodate limited range of motion of older drivers

Minimum receiving lane width for rural unsignalised intersections

Source: Vic Roads

traffic control devices
Traffic Control Devices
  • Pavement marking brightness and width
  • Sign brightness
  • Sign letter size
  • Barrier treatments for horizontal curavature (Japan)
pavement and barrier markings
Pavement and Barrier Markings
  • Reflective chevrons on barrier wall
  • Wider lines to indicate start of exit lane
speed control
Speed Control
  • Traffic calming
  • Speed zoning by district
  • Backed up by automated enforcement
traffic calming
Traffic Calming
  • Speed Humps
  • Raised Pedestrian Crosswalks
  • Reduced Residential Area Speeds
colored pavements
Colored pavements
  • Lane Prohibition
  • Curve Warnings
  • Positive Guidance in coordination with color-coded diagrammatic signs

Highlighting Bike Lane at Intersection, Sydney

Marking Prohibition to Entry to Bus Lane, Melbourne

transit improvements
Transit Improvements
  • Accessible tram stops
  • Median transfer points to reduce pedestrian activity in street
improvements for pedestrians
Improvements for Pedestrians
  • Median refuge islands


improvements for pedestrians1
Improvements for Pedestrians
  • Extended pedestrian phase signal time
  • Actuated signals
improvements for pedestrians2
Improvements for Pedestrians
  • Separation of pedestrians and other vehicles, including bikes
improvements for pedestrians3
Improvements for Pedestrians
  • Pedestrian Fencing
    • Directs pedestrians to marked or signalized crosswalks
    • Prevents jay-walking
driving reduction and cessation
Driving Reduction and Cessation
  • Policies vary from mandatory re-testing after age 75 to no age-based testing
  • Emphasis in all states is education, self-assessment, and self-regulation
addressing mobility
Addressing Mobility
  • Peer-to-peer training – use of transit, para-transit, home delivery services
  • Mobility Advisor – training home health care workers
  • Community-based alternative transportation services – creative use of available vehicles
future trends
Future Trends
  • Aging in place
    • increased transit demand
    • more older pedestrians
    • transit-oriented development
  • Rising number of older motorcycle riders
  • Increased use of mobility scooters
  • Increased use of recreational vehicles
motorcycle safety education
Motorcycle Safety Education
  • Mandatory Helmet Law
  • Partnerships with Motorcycle club for riders over age of 50
  • Reconsideration of license endorsement testing requirements

Slide 40

recreational vehicles
Recreational Vehicles
  • Rural areas
    • Road Trains
    • Narrow paved surfaces
research activities
Research Activities
  • Older Driver Naturalistic Driving Study
  • Age-related Eye Disease
  • Medication Interactions
  • Older Recreational Vehicle Drivers
  • Enhanced Nighttime Pedestrian Identification through Bio-motion markers
implementation topics
Implementation Topics
  • Enhancement of U.S. Roadway Design and Operations Practice
  • Outreach to Non-Traditional Partners
  • Targeted Research Program
  • Establish Land Use and Development Guidelines
  • Training for Transportation Providers