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1750 – 1914 CE. The Modern Era The Age of Industrial Revolutions The Age of Atlantic Revolutions The Age of Nationalism The 2 nd Age of Imperialism The Age of European Hegemony The Scramble for Africa. Diverse Interpretations. Change: Give Up the Old Ways for New Ways

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1750 1914 ce

1750 – 1914 CE

The Modern Era

The Age of Industrial Revolutions

The Age of Atlantic Revolutions

The Age of Nationalism

The 2nd Age of Imperialism

The Age of European Hegemony

The Scramble for Africa

diverse interpretations
Diverse Interpretations
  • Change: Give Up the Old Ways for New Ways
    • Improved economic systems
    • Technological Revolution
    • Social Changes including more rights for women
    • An increasing emphasis on secularization
    • Democratic government
  • Modernization or Westernization?
    • How to Modernize without Westernizing
    • Most non-European nations wanted to modernize
  • Dependency Theory
    • Developing nations are economically dependent on developed nations
    • Developed nations drain resources from developing nations
    • Developing nations export agricultural products, raw minerals, labor
    • Developing nations import finished products
    • Dependency inherent in capitalism
  • Marxist Theory
    • Nations which adopt socialism do not need to westernize, be dependent
  • Beginnings
    • Capitalization came from Caribbean sugar profits
    • 1750 – 1820s: Began in Great Britain
    • 1800 – 1850: Spread to France, Belgium, Germany, United States
    • 1850 – 1914: Spread to Russia, Japan, Austria (Czech lands)
  • Impact was Global
    • Massive Growth of Global Trade
      • Imports of raw minerals and materials
        • Cottons
        • Fuels
        • Iron
      • Export of finished goods
    • Labor markets became global
      • Slave Trade from 1750 to 1820 more or less
        • Three Slave Trades
        • Atlantic was largest; Indian Ocean last to end
      • Immigration to Americas in search of work
      • Indians, Chinese, Vietnamese immigrated to work plantations
        • Indentured Servitude, Tenant Farming, Sharecropping
a 2 nd agricultural revolution
  • Capitalization of the Industrial Revolution
    • Sugar production was highly labor intensive, capital intensive
    • Caribbean generated millions in profit, deposited in banks
    • British inventors, industrialists could easily borrow money
    • Preceded Industrial Revolution by about 50 years
  • 2nd Agricultural Revolution
    • In UK: Experimentation with new crops, animal breeding
    • Enclosure movements
      • Larger, wealthier landowners enclose public lands
      • Force smaller farmers off their land
      • Increased efficiency
      • Forced smaller farmers off land, to cities looking for work
    • Improved farming techniques
  • Mechanization of Agriculture
    • Industrial technologies applied to farming
    • Most pronounced in USA, Canada
population increase
  • European population
    • Between 1700 – 1800
      • Rose to 190 million
    • Population Explosion
      • Due to increase in birth rate
      • Decline in death rate
      • Birth rate exceeds death rate
  • Sanitary Conditions
    • Medical care improved
    • Nutrition improved
    • Sanitation improved
  • Life Expectancy in developing nations rose
    • Europeans introduced medical, sanitary practices abroad
improved technology
  • New sources of power, energy
    • Muscle power replaced by machines
      • Human labor, animal power
    • Steam power uses coal
    • Later electricity due to natural gas, oil
  • Factory System
    • Mechanization of production
    • Required concentration of labor in one place
  • Success in one area fueled interest in others
    • Inventions applied to other fields
    • Entrepreneurship rewarded by European societies
  • 1st Industrial Revolution: 1780 – 1850
    • Concentrated in power (steam), transportation
    • Mechanization of clothing production
  • 2nd Industrial Revolution: 1870 – 1914
    • Concentrated in chemicals, electricity, communications
other related revolutions
  • Transportation Revolution
    • Steam ships
    • Railroads
  • Communications Revolution
    • Telegraph
    • Trans-Oceanic Cables
    • Rise of Mass Newspapers
  • Urbanization as Revolution
    • Centers of commerce, industry
    • Attracted population to jobs
  • Rise of the Middle Class, Professionals
  • 2nd Scientific Revolution
  • Imperialism as Revolution
spread of industrialization
  • Rate of spread dependent on other factors
    • How supportive of industry was society?
    • How supportive of industry was the government?
  • Wars had a tendency to mandate industrialization
    • French Revolution, Napoleon helped UK
    • Crimean War fueled changes in Russia favoring industry
    • Germany, France, Russia modernized out of defense needs
    • Civil War impacted US: factories, railroads
    • Japan forcibly opened by Perry, Meiji Restoration follows
  • Trade and Imperialism spread industry
    • Europe, Japan needed raw materials, sought them abroad
    • Trade flourished as all nations involved in trade
    • Asia, Africa, Latin America were sources of raw materials
    • Many Europeans built factors abroad in colonies
    • Some empires began to train a local native technical class
the process
  • Factories Built
    • Near access to ports, power, workers
  • Shift of people
    • From countryside to city
    • Due to poor harvests, too many to feed
    • Too little land to work
    • Allure of city life away from farm
    • Increased urbanization
  • Middle Class arose
    • Factory managers, shop owners
    • Professionals such as lawyers, accountants, technocrats
  • Brutal working conditions
  • Reactions – Call for Reforms
    • Radicalization of workers including rise of unions, welfare systems
    • Radicalization of some political ideologies: Socialism, Marxism
    • Calls for reform including political and social
responses to industrialization
  • Reform Movements
    • Socialism
      • Utopianism sought ideal solutions
        • Work with state, factory owners
      • Marxism
        • Class struggle natural, instrument of change
        • State always serves those with money
        • Rich (bourgeoisie) get richer, poor (proletariat) get poorer
        • Change only can come about as a violent revolution
        • Successful revolution would establish workers’ paradise
      • Communism or Bolshevism
        • Marxism was basis but needed a revolutionary party to lead
        • Conditions do not have to be right for a revolution, make one!
      • Reform Socialism
        • Change through ballot box, elections: does not have to be violent
      • Trade Unionism
        • Workers seek to redress grievances through collective action, strikes
    • State Initiated Reforms
      • Often called Liberalism
        • Increase suffrage, written constitutions
        • Suffrage limited however to upper middle class, those who had property, were educated
      • Reform diffused possibilities of revolt: expand electorate, social insurance
gender issues
  • Changes
    • Poor women
      • had to migrate to cities for work
      • Worked in factories, brought in a second income
      • Sweatshop industries became common
    • Upper class women
      • More wealth, more servants to manage
      • Less power outside home than in previous eras
    • Middle Class housewives
      • A new class has a new group of women
      • Tended to imitate upper class moral standards, lifestyles
      • Cult of Domesticity, Victorian Age of Women encouraged
      • But some women could now get university educations
      • Women became active in some reform movements
    • Colonies and Women
      • European women had great influence abroad, set a standard for others
      • Native women acquired some of same roles of Middle Class housewives
  • Continuities
    • Women still had family responsibilities
    • Society was still patriarchal
women s suffrage
  • Abolition preceded women’s suffrage
    • Women very involved in abolition movements
      • Suffrage took a second place to abolition
      • Women became involved in other reform movements: temperance, Progressives
    • Seneca Falls Declaration in 1848
      • Frederick Douglass attended as delegate
  • A Slow Process – Two Steps Forward, One Back
    • Role of Enlightenment
      • Women ran salons, fostered ntellectual freedom
    • French Revolution
      • Women granted full rights and vote until Napoleon
      • Olympia de Gouges, Mary Wollstonecraft
      • Napoleon took back gains, no vote until 1944
    • In UK, US –
      • Reforms, progressive movements met resistance
      • World War I in UK, US won women the vote, rights
    • Africa, Asia, Middle East gave women vote as part of decolonization
    • Latin America, Russia, China, Japan: depended on other factors
    • Socialism, Communism often granted women the vote for first time
abolitions emancipations
  • Abolition of the Slave Trade, Slavery
    • Calls for its abolition
      • Religious groups were instrumental: Methodists, Quakers
      • UK was the leader in the movement to abolish both
      • Enlightenment, French Revolution began process
      • Abolished in Americas as part of national independence processes
    • Industry was not compatible with slavery
      • Slaves had no reason to work hard, no tendency to innovate, experiment
      • Factories could not use slaves as they were too expensive
    • US, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Brazil were last American nations to abolish slavery
  • Emancipation of Russian Serfs
    • Reasons
      • Rising violence and rebellion amongst serfs
      • Serfs bound to land, had no reason to work harder for someone else
      • Russian needed workers in factories
      • Russia lacked an internal market, serfs were potential customers
      • Russia lost Crimean War, reformers blamed loss on backwardness
    • Emancipation of 1861
      • Serfs were free, no longer bound to land, now could work elsewhere
      • Reality: serfs became tenant farmers, indentured labor for landlords
      • Reality: no land reform – serfs got the worse land, could not pay taxes
  • Exchanges of Ideas and Goods
    • Increased contacts made this inevitable
    • Modernization came with a Western bias
      • Modernization often carried with it westernization
  • Popular Movements
    • Rural to Urban Migration throughout world
    • Immigration
      • European immigration to Americas between 35-50 million
        • European population transformed Americas, Oceania
      • African Slave Trade not abolished until early 1800s
        • Africans transported to Americas but also SW Asia, Indian Ocean
      • Substitute Labor for Plantations
        • Indians, Chinese, Vietnamese filled need
        • Often agricultural labor but small business owners, wives followed
      • Settlement of frontiers
        • Russians, Americans, Chinese, Boer Afrikaaners, Brazilians, Argentines
state structures nationalism
  • Previous State Structures
    • Decentralized
      • Feudal Monarchy
      • Aristocratic privilege, vassals, feudal lords, hierarchy
    • Centralized
      • Divine Right Monarchy and Absolute Monarchy
      • Loyalty to one man, centralized state apparatus, elites
  • Rise of Nationalism
    • Loyalty to the state, a national consciousness
    • Strong ideology amongst middle classes but spread to all classes
    • Fueled by French Revolution, Napoleon: nationalism spread
    • Nationalism threatens multi-national empires: Austria, Russia, Ottoman
  • Reactions
    • Congress of Vienna opposed nationalism
    • Balance of Power: Great powers manage change, prevent change
    • Restored monarchs to thrones, redrew national boundaries
  • Burgeoning European nationalisms
    • Unite one ethnic group under an independent ethnic state
    • Germany: Prussia and Bismarck united Germany in 1870
    • Italy: Sardinia and Cavour united Italy in 1860-1870
    • Pan-Slavism, Austro-Slavism, or Independence
  • European Example Copied Abroad
    • India: Sepoy Rebellion, Indian National Congress, African National Congress
    • China, Japan
    • Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam
    • Young Turks of Ottoman Empire, Persia
    • Mexico
stages of political revolutions
  • The Stage is Set
    • State is economically weak, government is ineffective
    • New ideas arise, new groups arise to challenge status-quo, intellectual movements influence change
  • Old Regime Loses Control
    • Old elites attempt to reassert privileges
    • Some short term event sparks a conflict, disaster rallies forces who oppose old elites
    • Government too divided and weak to suppress revolt
  • Moderate Phase of the Revolution
    • Moderates come to power, initiate changes
    • Electorate expanded, constitution liberalized, some reforms initiated
  • Reaction to the Moderates Arise
    • Moderates enact only limited reforms
    • Radicals mobilize their supporters demanding more extensive reforms
  • Radicals Seize Control
    • Radicals take control of state and revolution
    • Radicals enact sweeping changes, eliminate old institutions completely
  • Radical Reign of Terror
    • Foreign, domestic opposition arises to challenge radicals
    • Radicals react, remove opponents, seek to institutionalize, spread their ideology
  • Moderate Return
    • Moderates who come to represent the majority remove radicals
    • End the most radical reforms, return privileges to many groups, lose contact with people
  • Rise of a Strong Leader or Authoritarianism
    • Usually a military leader arises to oppose moderates
    • Seizes control of state, institutionalizes revolution, revolution ends
revolutions 1750 1914
REVOLUTIONS 1750 – 1914
  • American Revolution 1776 – 1783
  • French Revolution 1789 – 1799
  • Haitian Revolution 1793 – 1802
  • Latin American Revolutions 1810 – 1822
  • Mehmet Ali in Egypt, 1820s
  • European Revolutions 1820s – 1848
    • Belgium revolts from Netherlands
    • Greece revolts from Ottoman Empire
    • French Revolutions in 1830 and 1848
    • European Revolutions in 1848: Germany, Italy, Central Europe
  • Meiji Restoration (Japan) 1867
  • Young Turks (Ottoman Empire) 1908 – 1920s
  • 1st Iranian Revolution 1905
  • 1st Russian Revolution 1905
  • Mexican Revolution 1910 – 1920
  • Chinese Revolution 1911 – 1912
latin america
  • Stages
    • Enlightenment, US Revolution, French Revolution influences creoles
    • Creoles feel marginalized by peninsulares, mother countries’ government
    • French Revolution, Napoleon occupy Iberia, make changes which creoles, peninsulares hate
    • Colonies left on their own and begin to make decisions without benefit of mother country
    • Creoles lead independence movements, form militias, resist return of Spain
    • Civil wars, turmoil, suffering followed as creoles battle Spain for control
    • Conservatives take control of new states after independence
  • Result
    • Many newly independent nations
    • Mexico: Grito de Dolores, Fr. Hidalgo & Morelos, Iturbide
    • South America: Simon Bolivar (North), Jose de San Martin (Central)
    • Brazil: Different – peaceful split from Portugal, new ruler becomes emperor
    • Haiti: Different – a slave revolt, rebellion led to independence
  • After Independence
    • Life for majority of people (mestizos, mulattos, Blacks, Indians) little changed, marginalized
    • Societies remained largely casted
    • Small powerful elite of creole families ruled independent states
    • Church is part of the government structure; assists governing elite – rise of anti-clericalism
    • Rule by military strongmen called caudillos becomes common; armies turn on people
    • Struggle between liberals and conservatives, centrists and federalists to define state structures
    • Developments limited to exportable goods, industries and most assets controlled by foreigners
    • Heavy British, American investment in resources leads to Western financial control
  • Standouts: Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile
western hegemony
  • Continuity
    • European continued economic dominance of world
    • European empires continued to exist
    • Persistence of social norms in most areas resisting change
  • Change
    • Europeans expanded dominance of world to Africa, Asia
    • Europeans became industrial, commercial center of world
    • Europeans lost political control of the Americas
    • US, Japan, Germany join great powers
    • Westernization, modernization impacts mass society
  • Prior to 1750
    • Asians, Africans controlled own countries
    • Europeans allowed trading rights, bases but limited influence
    • Internal trade left to locals, Asian states licensed groups to trade
    • Europeans controlled trans-Oceanic trade
  • Change Begins
    • Dutch, English, French challenge Spain, Portugal
    • Spain, Portugal relied on royal monopolies
    • Newcomers used privately owned companies, initiative
  • By 1800
    • Between 1789-1820, 1st European colonial empires collapsed
    • Only viable European colonial empire was Great Britain
    • Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, French had minor possessions
new actors
  • United States: Liberal democracy with expanding suffrage but no rights for women, blacks
    • 1750 – 13 British Colonies with strong traditions of self-rule
    • 1800 – Successful revolution, new government; Mississippi border, Manifest Destiny, Monroe Doctrine
    • 1850 – War With Mexico Acquires West but country at height of sectionalism over slavery
    • 1875 – Fought Civil War, Slavery Ended; US Industrial Power as #3 in world
    • 1914 – US acquires an empire in Pacific, Caribbean; Mass Immigration; Open Door Policy
  • Germany: Autocratic democracy struggling with socialism, industrialization
    • 1750 – 400+ states, Prussia and Austria were the largest
    • 1800 – Germany was a dependent of Napoleon, whose rule created German nationalism
    • 1850 – Industrial Revolution, nationalism gripped Germany; democracy was clear loser in 1848
    • 1875 – Prussia had united Germany, humiliated France and Austria, created an autocratic empire
    • 1914 – Germany was the #2 industrial power in world, #2 navy, #1 army
  • Russian Empire: autocratic state plagued by struggle for reform, rights; dominated by elite
    • 1750 – New great power having defeated Sweden, Ottoman Empire
    • 1800 – One of two free great powers left to oppose Napoleon, revolution, liberalism
    • 1850 – Europe’s policeman, opposed revolution, nationalism, liberalism
    • 1875 – Had lost Crimean War; emancipation of serfs had not helped; spreading radicalism, industry
    • 1914 – 1905 Revolution by workers, soviets crushed; reforms limited; internally very weak
  • Japan: From Shogunate to Constitutional Monarch dominated by elite industries, military
    • 1750 – Still isolated internationally with only one yearly contact through Nagasaki; Dutch Learning
    • 1800 – Shogun weakening but Dutch learning had spread
    • 1854 – US forces Japan to end isolation, open ports
    • 1875 – Meiji Restoration had overthrown Shogun; massive industrialization, modernization
    • 1904 – Had built modern army, navy: had defeated China, Russia, annexed Ryuykus
    • 1914 – Only non-European great power; had alliance with UK, annexed Korea, interested in China
  • Rise of Diplomacy and Diplomats
    • Renaissance saw rise of diplomats as a class, institution
    • Rules of conduct set: extraterritoriality of diplomats, embassies
    • Enlightenment: growth of works on international law, treaties
  • Alliances
    • Temporary alliances of states with similar objectives not new
    • Diplomatic Revolution of 1750s: Rise of Prussia, Great Britain
    • Grand Alliance /Holy Alliance against France, Revolution
  • Balance of Power
    • No one state should dominate; states team up to restore balance
    • War is failed diplomacy – use force to achieve objectives
  • Alliance Systems
    • Germany upset balance in 1870; France humiliated
    • Germany and France become the center of two competing alliances
      • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, Italy (Ottoman Empire)
      • Triple Entente: France, Russia, United Kingdom (Japan)
imperialism colonialism
  • Imperialism
    • Powerful nations extend control over less-powerful nations
    • Control can be direct, indirect, political, economic, social
    • 1492-1820 is an age of colonialism
      • Colonialism tends towards recreating European cultures and settler colonies
    • 1830-1914 is an age of imperialism
      • Imperialism tends towards exploiting other nations to benefit the mother country
      • Less concern with making the colony a settler colony
  • Spurred By
    • Nationalism and nationalist competition
      • Desire for prestige, military power, glory
    • Desire to maintain balance of power
      • France defeated by Germany in 1870 sought balance in colonies
      • Russia, Germany seek to rival UK in Asia, acquire colonies
    • Industrial Revolution
      • Seek markets for your goods
      • Seek sources for raw materials especially fuels
  • Results Of
    • Increased life expectancy, literacy
    • Destruction of traditional patterns of life to support European systems
    • Imposition of new values, customs including religious systems
colonial administrations
  • Types
    • Direct
      • Favored by France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Japan
      • Replace local leaders with men sent out by mother countries
      • Introduce own laws, law systems, courts, governmental bodies
      • Did not believe locals were capable of governing themselves
    • Indirect
      • Favored by UK, US, Netherlands
      • Rule through existing elites, institutions
      • Change as few customs, traditions as possible
      • Senior officials appointed by mother country
      • Establish schools to educate young men for civil service jobs
  • Dominions
    • Settler colonies granted virtual independence, self-rule
    • Applies to Canada, Australia, NZ, South Africa
  • The United States
    • Beginning in 1867, US expanded into Pacific – Wake Island, Alaska
    • In 1898 acquired Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Samoa
    • Expansion due in large part to industrialization, nationalism, navy
  • Japan
    • Began in 1870s with annexation of Ryuku Islands
    • Led to conflicts with China (1894), Russia (1904)
    • Ended with annexation of Taiwan, Korea, Pacific Islands, assets in China
other imperialisms
  • Economic Imperialism
    • Actually described by Marx, Lenin
    • Involved dominance of industry, finance
    • Let to competitions between national firms
    • US, UK, Germany were three greatest rivals to 1914
    • Examples
      • US loan money, invested in Mexico, Central America, Caribbean
      • UK invested heavily in South America
      • Germany invested heavily in Eastern Europe, Balkans, Turkey
      • France invested heavily in Russia
      • Europeans built Latin American infrastructure to help exports
  • Racism and Social Darwinism
    • Theory of Evolution and Darwin led to this development
    • Natural selection, survival of fittest applied to imperialism
      • Social Darwinism theorized that certain nations, races were superior
      • The inferior races should be dominated by superior, civilized nations
local reactions reform resist rebel
  • Ottoman Empire
    • Causes
      • Russia attacks Ottomans, supports Pan-Slavic nationalism
      • Egypt begins to modernize, break away
    • Local Reaction
      • Turks fight back, seek support of UK, France
      • Turkey seeks to modernize: Tanzimat Reforms, Young Turk Movement
    • Outcome
      • Ottoman Empire seen as the “sick man of Europe”
      • Turks loose control of Balkans, North Africa, Caucasus
  • India
    • Causes
      • Europeans vie for control of Indian Ocean trade, ports under the Mughals
      • European rivalry spills over into India
      • British East India Company builds a trading empire in India
    • Local Reaction
      • Initially none from Mughals but local princes try to oppose British, ally with French
      • Marathas, Sikhs, others oppose British expansion
      • Sepoy Rebellion on 1857 – Indian Muslims and Hindus join forces against British
    • Outcome
      • British government takes control of the East India Company, territory
      • Creates the Empire of India with Queen Victoria as the Empress
      • Allows local princes to control local affairs (UK controls army, diplomacy, national politics)
local reactions reform resist rebel31
  • Japan
    • Causes
      • US under Commodore Perry forces Japan to open its ports to the West in 1854
      • Japan sees what has happened in China
    • Local Reaction
      • Shogun deposed, Emperor returned to power under Meiji Restoration in 1867
      • Meiji Restoration modernizes, industrializes, but only moderately westernizes 1867 - 1912
    • Outcome
      • Japan becomes a major power able to resist Europeans, defeats Russians in 1904 war
      • Annexes islands, parts of China, Korea and creates its own empire (1877 – 1910)
  • China
    • Causes
      • Foreign merchants trade even if opium trade is forbidden; Western influence continues to grow
      • Discontent with Manchu (Qing) Dynasty
    • Local Reaction
      • Western-educated, intellectuals seek reforms but conservatives, Confucians block reforms
      • Taiping Rebellion: Christian messianic traditions blend with Confucianism, poor peasants rebel
      • Boxer Rebellion against Western influence supported by Dowager Empress, fails
    • Outcome
      • UK forces China to open ports to trade, westerners (Opium Wars, Treaty Ports, Extraterritoriality)
      • Other powers partition China into treaty ports, spheres of influence (Sino-Japanese War)
      • 1911 Revolution overthrows the Manchu Dynasty
local reactions reform resist rebel33
  • Africa
    • Egypt
      • Mehmet Ali: An Albanian officer in Turkish Army comes to control Egypt
      • Seeks to modern country on European model: army, industry, society
      • Greatest resistance comes from Europeans who defeat his navy, limit his regime, influence
    • East Africa
      • The Sudan
        • Sudan controlled by a corrupt Turkish-Egyptian regime
        • Man claiming to be the Madhi or promised one preceding the end of time appears, rallies region
        • Preaches a reformed, puritanical Islam stripped of western ideas, concepts
        • Defeats Egyptian force led by a British general
        • British re-invade in 1898 and crush regime, rule Sudan as a co-dominion with Egypt
      • Ethiopia
        • Italy seeks to create an empire in East Africa, occupies Eritrea, Somalia; advanced against Ethiopia
        • Ethiopia under Menelik II had modernized, acquired western arms – defeats Italy
    • Southern Africa
      • The Zulus
        • Rise of Shaka Zulu in early 1800s creates a Zulu Empire, produces Mkfane or dispersal of Bantu tribes
        • Zulus threaten British settlers in Natal Province and Boer Republics, clash with British
        • Britain defeats, annexes Zululand
      • The Boers
        • Great Britain acquired Capetown Colony during Napoleonic Wars
        • Increasing English influence, immigration drove Boers (Dutch farmers) to migrate inland
        • Boers set up Afrikaaner Republics independent of British
        • Gold/diamonds discovered, which British covet; Anglo-Boer War: British attack, defeat, annex Boer Republics
        • South Africa created in 1910
intellectual changes
  • Arts: Art, Music, and Literature
    • Classicism: Idealization of the Past (Greeks, Romans)
    • Romanticism: Idealization of nation, national culture
    • Realism: look at society as it is, not idealized
    • Impressionism as reaction to, fascination with industrialization
    • Post-Impressionism begins movement towards emotions
  • Philosophy
    • Materialism
    • Idealism
    • Progressivism
  • Sciences
    • Physics: Einstein, Currie, Roentgen
    • Psychology as a result of Freud’s studies
    • Biology and Genetics: Mendel, Darwin
    • Medicine: Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, Lister, Walter Reed