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Influencing Behavior: The Human Animal. Chapters 9-11. Analyze these ads. How are the advertisers attempting to influence readers to purchase the product? You will have 45 seconds to write down your thoughts for each ad.

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Influencing Behavior:The Human Animal

Chapters 9-11

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Analyze these ads.How are the advertisersattempting to influencereaders to purchase the product?You will have 45 seconds to write down your thoughts for each ad.

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Key Ideas extra dry skin.

  • Classical Conditioning

    • Conditioned stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned response

  • Instrumental/Operant Conditioning

    • Positive vs. negative reinforcement

    • Punishment

    • Extinction

    • Shaping

    • Social Learning (Modeling)

    • Reward schedules

  • Applications to Marketing

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UCS extra dry skin.




PavlovClassical Conditioning


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Another View extra dry skin.

Let’s see this in action:

Phil Zimbardo

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Training Your Roommate extra dry skin.

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The Altoid Experiment extra dry skin.

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Exhibit 9.2 extra dry skin.

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Skinner extra dry skin. Operant Conditioning

What does this have to do with consumer behavior?

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Quote… extra dry skin.

All we need to know in order to describe and explain behavior is this: actions followed by good outcomes are likely to recur , and actions followed by bad outcomes are less likely to recur.

-- Skinner (1953)

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Key Terms extra dry skin.

  • Positive reinforcement

    • Response becomes more likely after a reward

  • Negative reinforcement

    • Response becomes more likely after the termination of an aversive stimulus

    • Not punishment! (punishment decreases the likelihood of behavior)

  • Punishment

    • Response becomes less likely when it results in the administration of an undesirable consequence or termination of a positive consequence

  • Extinction

    • Response becomes less likely after it repeatedly fails to  desired outcome

    • Related idea: Learned helplessness

  • Shaping

    • Initially reinforce actions that only approach the desired response

    • Gradually reinforce responses that come closer and closer to desired response

    • Skinner Example; Example 2 – Training Jack to Roll Over

  • Vicarious Learning (or Modeling)

    • We learn “response-consequence” contingencies by observing others

    • Bandura’s classic study (modeling aggression)

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Key Schedules of Reinforcement extra dry skin.

  • Continuous

    • Reward given each time desired response is performed (e.g., lever presses)

  • Fixed Ratio

    • A reward is given after a fixed number of responses (every 2 presses)

    • Leads to a high and steady level of responding

  • Fixed Interval

    • A reward is given after first desired response occurs after a fixed time interval (e.g., every 2 minutes)

    • Scallop pattern; responding speeds up as end of time interval approaches

  • Variable Ratio

    • A reward is given after a variable number of responses (sometimes 2 presses, sometimes 5, sometimes 1)

    • Leads to highly persistent responding; very hard to extinguish

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Before Skinner… extra dry skin. Thorndike and WatsonInstrumental and Classical Conditioning

Zimbardo on Thorndike’s Law of Effect


Little Albert (classical & instrumental conditioning)



Skinner vs. Watson



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Discriminative Stimuli extra dry skin. Or, How to Teach a Pigeon to Read

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What does this have to do with CB? extra dry skin.

Marketers use a variety of principles of reinforcement

to elicit the desire response from consumers

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Exhibit 9.4 extra dry skin.

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Let’s return to the ads. extra dry skin. How are the advertisersattempting to influencereaders to purchase the product?Use concepts from today’s lecture…