The Cold War & Decolonization. AKS 48 – Chapters 33.1, 33.2, 33.5, 34.1 (1st half), 34.3 (1st half), 34.4, 35.2 (2nd half), 35.4 (1st half), 35.5 (1st half). The Ideological Struggle. Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]. US & the Western Democracies. communist v. non-communist.
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TheCold War& Decolonization AKS 48 – Chapters 33.1, 33.2, 33.5, 34.1 (1st half), 34.3 (1st half), 34.4, 35.2 (2nd half), 35.4 (1st half), 35.5 (1st half)
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies communist v. non-communist GOAL spread world-wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. • METHODOLOGIES: • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] • Arms Race [nuclear escalation] • Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” • Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Baltic, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
The “Iron Curtain” The “iron curtain” came to represent… Europe’s division into mostly democratic W. Europe & Communist E. Europe.
Truman Doctrine  • Civil War in Greece. • Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. • The U.S. should support countries that rejected communism. • The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
Marshall Plan  • “European Recovery Program.” • Secretary of State, George Marshall • The US should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. • $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49) • USSR held W. Berlin hostage • Led to Berlin airlift (US & British flew in food & supplies) • USSR admitted defeat, lifted blockade
The Arms Race • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. • Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
EVENTS THAT INCREASED THE TENSIONS…
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) • United States • Belgium • Britain • Canada • Denmark • France • Iceland • Italy • Luxemburg • Netherlands • Norway • Portugal • 1952: Greece & Turkey • 1955: West Germany • 1983: Spain Led to formation of…
Warsaw Pact (1955) • U. S. S. R. • Albania • Bulgaria • Czechoslovakia • East Germany • Hungary • Poland • Rumania
Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956 De-Stalinization Program
Sputnik I (1957) • The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge! • - Ledto… rivalry between 2 superpowers in science and education
U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) CheckpointCharlie
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961) • CIA had been training anti-Castro exiles • Landed at Bay of Pigs, no air support, defeated easily • US humiliated
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) July 1962 – Khrushchev began building 42 missile sites in Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) • Sites discovered in October by USA • JFK announced naval blockade of Cuba to prevent installation of more missiles • People feared nuclear war for 13 days!
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and they blinked!
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if US promised not to invade Cuba
Communists vs. Nationalists: Who was Mao Zedong? Leader of Communist forces & later chairman of Communist Party & head of People’s Republic of China
Communists vs. Nationalists: Who was Chang Kai-shek? Leader of Nationalist forces & later head of Republic of China
Communists vs. Nationalists: Civil War: • Started before WWII • Resumed after Japanese surrendered (1945) • Ended in 1949
Communists vs. Nationalists: Advantages for Nationalists: • Large army • Aid from USA
Communists vs. Nationalists: Advantages for Communists: • Army skilled in guerilla warfare • Popular support
Communists vs. Nationalists: US Reaction: • US helped Nationalists set up gov’t • Enlarged American sphere of influence in Asia
Communists vs. Nationalists: Soviet Reaction: • Soviets provided financial, military, & technical aid to Communists • Soviets signed a defensive alliance with them
Communists vs. Nationalists: Result: • Nationalists lost – forced to island of Taiwan
Mao Transforms Economy – How? • Gave land to peasants • Formed collective farms • Nationalized businesses
Mao’s Great Leap Forward– What was it? • Called for larger collective farms • Major failure
Mao’s Great Leap Forward– Why did it fail? • Poor planning • Inefficient industries • Lack of work incentive • Crop failures & famine
Mao’s Cultural Revolution– What was it? • Students formed Red Guard • Goal: establish a society of peasants & workers in which all were equal • Many intellectuals forced to do hard labor to “purify” themselves, executed, or imprisoned
Mao’s Cultural Revolution– Why did Mao launch it? • To revive the Marxist revolution he had begun
India Achieves Freedom (1920-1960s Gandhi Nehru
1920: Gandhi launches first nonviolent campaign for independence. See AKS 46e for more details.
1940: Muslim League proposes partition of India: • Concern of Muslim League was that Congress Party would primarily protect Hindu interests
1947: India & Pakistan become independent: Problems Faced Prior to Independence: 1. Movement of millions of ppl to new homes 2. Division of courts, military, civil service 3. Violence among religious groups
Problems in Kashmir*: *Territory in northern part of India – ruler is Hindu, but region had majority Muslim population 1. Fought over land 2. U.N. arranged cease-fire – placed 1/3 under Pakistani control & the rest under Indian control
Jawaharlal Nehru Contributions to Modernization & Democracy: • Pushed for industrialization & social reforms • Tried to elevate status of lower castes • Tried to improve women’s rights
Indpendence in Ghana Tactics Used by Nkrumah: 1. Organized strikes & boycotts Nkrumah’s Reforms: 1. Developed industry 2. Developed expensive health, welfare, & education programs Problems: 1. Economic & political instability
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory”
Background: 1.Taken from Japan (1945) - Japs surrendered to USSR in north (Communist) - Japs surrendered to USA in south (democratic) 2. Divided at 38th Parallel
Causes: Why did the UN send an international force to Korea? - Because South Korea asked the UN to intervene when North Koreans crossed the 38th parallel and attacked
MacArthur was demanding a nuclear attack on China for helping the North Koreans. Truman feared WWIII. When MacArthur went to Congress and the press, Truman fired him!
Outcome: • July 1953 – President Eisenhower signed cease-fire agreement • What was the legacy of the war for North Korea and South Korea? • Communist N. Korea became a military power but declined economically • S. Korea industrialized & prospered economically with the help of US aid
Background: Controlled by France (French Indochina) before WWII Japan took control of it when France fell to Germany