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Spatial DBMS. Spatial Database Management Systems. Introduction. March 2002. SDBMS is a database system with additional capabilities for handling spatial data. Spatial Objects

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Spatial dbms

Spatial DBMS

Spatial Database Management Systems


Introduction
Introduction

March 2002

SDBMS is a database system with additional capabilities for handling spatial data.

  • Spatial Objects

    • Consist of points, lines, surfaces, volumes and higher dimension objects that are used in applications of computer-aided design, cartography, geographic information systems.

  • Spatial Data

    • The values of the objects’ spatial attributes: length, configuration, perimeter, area, volume, etc.

  • Spatial Databases

    • A collection of spatial and non-spatial data that is interrelated, of data descriptions and links between data

April 2004


Functionality
Functionality

  • Spatial data is comprised of objects in multi-dimensional space

  • Spatial Indexing

    • Retrieving objects in a particular area without scanning the entire space

  • Spatial Joins

    • Efficient algorithms for joining multiple spatial objects


Raster and vector data
Raster and Vector Data

  • Two very different types of data

  • Vector is spit into three primary types:

    • polygon, line, point

  • Raster data represents the fourth type of feature: surfaces

    • Eg: thematic data, spectral data, and pictures (imagery)


Spatial relationships
Spatial Relationships

  • Topological relationships

    • Eg: adjacent, in, touch, equal, cover, overlap, disjoint, etc.

  • Direction relationships

    • Eg: above, below, north of, southeast of, etc.

  • Metric relationships

    • Eg: distance, size, perimeter, etc.


Querying
Querying

  • Spatial Selection

    • Eg: “All rivers in Arkansas” or “All rivers within 50 miles of Little Rock”

  • Spatial Join

    • Eg: “For each river in Arkansas, find all cities within 20 miles”


Indexing
Indexing

  • Organized so that only parts of the objects need to be examined to answer a query

  • Data stored as either points or polygons

  • Query types for points:

    • All points within a rectangle, point closest to query point, find points matching x in increasing distance from query point

  • Query types for polygons:

    • Intersection

    • Containment