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Percentage Composition. Recall that the FORMULA WEIGHT [or molar mass] of a substance is the MASS IN GRAMS of ONE MOLE of particles of that substance. One mole contains 6.022 X 10 23 particles. This number is called AVOGADRO’S NUMBER .

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Recall that the FORMULA WEIGHT [or molar mass] of a substance is the MASS IN GRAMS of ONE MOLE of particles of that substance.

    • One mole contains 6.022 X 1023particles.
    • This number is called AVOGADRO’S NUMBER.
slide3

Within the mass of a mole of any compound, EACH ELEMENT contributes a CERTAIN PERCENTAGE to the OVERALL MASS.

  • We can calculate these percentages. This is known as PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION.
calculating percentage composition
Calculating Percentage Composition
  • Calculating Percentage Composition is easy:
    • 1. Find the FORMULA WEIGHT of the compound.
    • 2. Calculate the MASS PERCENTAGE of EACH ELEMENT in the compound.
sample problem
SAMPLE PROBLEM
  • Calculate the Percentage Composition of Potassium Cyanide, KCN.
  • 1. Find the FORMULA WEIGHT for KCN:
  • 1 K X 39.098 g = 39.098 g
  • 1 C X 12.011 g = 12.011 g
  • 1 N X 14.007 g = 14.007 g
  • Add Results  65.116 g/mol
slide6

Now we will use the data from EACH ELEMENT to find the Percentage Composition:

  • 1 K X 39.098 g = 39.098g
  • 1 C X 12.011 g = 12.011g
  • 1 N X 14.007 g = 14.007 g
  • 65.116 g/mol
  • We will use the TOTAL MASS of EACH ELEMENT and divide it by the FORMULA WEIGHT, then MULTIPLY the results by 100%!
slide7

Mass of K

  • %K = 39.098 g X 100% = 60.04% K
  • 65.116 g/mol
  • Formula Weight of KCN
  • %C = 12.011 g X 100% = 18.45 % C
  • 65.116 g/mol
  • % N = 14.007 g X 100% = 21.51 % N
  • 65.116 g/mol
slide8

Finally, CHECK YOUR MATH! Add all the PERCENTAGES together….they should be VERY CLOSE TO 100%!

  • 60.04 % + 18.45% + 21.51% = 100%
practice problem
PRACTICE PROBLEM
  • Calculate the PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION of
  • Calcium Carbonate, CaCO3.
  • 1 Ca X 40.08 g = 40.08 g
  • 1 C X 12.011 g = 12.011 g
  • 3 O X 15.999 g = 47.997 g
  • 100.088 g/mol
slide10

% Ca 40.08 g X 100% = 40.08% Ca

  • 100.088 g/mol
  • % C 12.011 g X 100% = 12.01% C
  • 100.088 g/mol
  • % O 47.997 g X 100% = 47.99% O
  • 100.088 g/mol
  • 40.08 % + 12.01% + 47.99% = 100.08% = 100%
one your own
One Your Own
  • Find the Percentage Composition of Aluminum Phosphate, AlPO4.
  • ___ Al x ______ g = ________g
  • ___ P x ______ g = ________ g
  • ___ O x ______ g = ________ g
  • _______ g/mol

1 26.982 26.982

1 30.974 30.974

4 15.999 63.996

121.95

slide12

26.982 22.13

121.95

30.974 25.40

121.95

63.996 52.48

121.95

22.13 25.40 52.48 100.01

  • % Al ________ x 100% = _______ %Al
  • % P ________ x 100% = _______ %P
  • % O ________ x 100% = ________ % O
  • ____% Al + ____% P + ____ %O = _____%