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Job and opportunities Income and poverty. Giancarlo Blangiardo - Università Milano Bicocca Monica Perez - Istat Luciana Quattrociocchi - Istat Roberta Zizza - Banca d’Italia. What kind of integration?.

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job and opportunities income and poverty

Job and opportunities Income and poverty

Giancarlo Blangiardo - Università Milano Bicocca

Monica Perez - Istat

Luciana Quattrociocchi - Istat

Roberta Zizza - Banca d’Italia

slide2

What kind of integration?

  • Integration shows three specific characteristics: processuality, multi-dimensionality, and bi-directionality.
  • Integration is a process which always and only develops over time and requires some time.
  • Integration is always a multi-dimensional process, since it concerns different aspects of a migrant person’s life, that is to say, the economic, social, cultural, and political dimension.
  • Integration is always a bi-directional process, even when it is not immediately visible or it is rejected. Migrants must start a process of inclusion in the host society, which may be put into effect in different ways, but in any case obliges them to be confronted with the culture of the host country. The citizens of the host country, in turn, must be confronted with the newcomers and take a stance towards them (rejection, acceptance, mistrust, tolerance, openness, etc.), which may call their lifestyle into question, as well as their idea of their own integration in the society they belong to

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide3

Some Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration (*)

  • (1) Integration is a dynamic, two-way process of mutual accommodation by all immigrants and residents of Member States (…).
  • (3) Employment is a key part of the integration process and is central to the participation of immigrants, to the contributions immigrants make to the host society, and to making such contributions visible
  • (6) Access for immigrants (…) to public and private goods and services, on a basis equal to national citizens and in a non-discriminatory way is a critical foundation for better integration.
  • (11) Developing clear goals, indicators and evaluation mechanisms are necessary to adjust policy, evaluate progress on integration and to make the exchange of information more effective. (*)
  • (*) Justice and Home Affairs Council, 2004

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide4

Integration measure

How to measure and compare integration levels among migrant populations

(or sub-populations defined according to some specific features)

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide5

The classical macro approach:by statistical indicators of integration

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide6

Indicators on job and living conditions

  • Job opportunities
    • Employment rate
    • Unemployment rate
    • Activity rate
    • Permanent/fixedtermemployment
    • Part time/full time employment
    • Education job-mismatches (over qualification)
  • Income, living conditions, poverty
    • Household net income
    • People atrisk of poverty or social esclusion
    • Peolple living in household with verylow work intensity
    • Peolpleatrisk of povertyafter social transfer
    • Severallymaterialdeprivedpeople
      • .....

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide7

Main labour market indicators processed on foreigners

Source: Labour Force Survey- Year 2012

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

main indicators on living conditions of foreigners
Main indicators on living conditions of foreigners

Source: Survey on Living conditions of families with foreigners – Year 2009

slide9

Macro data from statistical sources duly processed to produce indicators

  • Main sources
  • Labour Force Survey
  • EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions
  • OECD PISA Survey
  • Census data
  • Etc.
  • Ad hoc Italian surveys
  • Survey on Living conditions of families with foreigners
  • Survey on Social condition and integration of foreigners
  • Survey of the Regional Observatory for Integration and Multiethnicity (Ismu-Eupolis 2001-2012)

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide10

The alternative micro approach: by individual scores of integration

Very apt to investigate differential aspects of the integration corresponding to local areas or to specific sub-populations& to control the effects of local or targeted policies

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide11

Individual data-base from statistical surveys duly processed

  • The tools
  • 1) Individual Census outcomes or Representative samples of the target population
  • 2) A methodology able to assign an integration score, according to a preliminary definition of integration, to every statistical unit of the sample

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide12

HOW TO

  • assign an integration score, according to a preliminary definition of integration, to every statistical unit of the data-base ?
  • the following steps are required
  • REMARK
  • In this example we shall consider the sole topic of labor market integration of TCNs.
  • Anyway a similar procedure can be followed in order to assign individual integration scores regarding both other specific dimensions (education, social exclusion, etc.) and the integration level as a whole

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide13

Measuring integration through individual integration scores

  • STEP1 Choice of the k integration variables of the dataset (according to a shared definition of integration in the labor market)
  • STEP2 Identification of integration scores for each variable by processing the frequencies of the sample distribution of the k variables selected
  • STEP3 Assignment the k scores to each statistical unit according to its modality of the variables under consideration
  • STEP4 Attribution of the average score of integration at each statistical unit (such score will be considered as an additional variable to the original dataset)
  • STEP5 Processing the integration average score in connection with the structural data (personal features, education, social inclusion, etc.)

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide14

Example of the application of the procedure

Definition: “a migrant who is employed with a stable/secured job that gives good income and is adequate to his education level can be considered fully integrated into the labor market”

Step 1

Source: PerLa Survey 2009 - Percorsi Lavorativi (Labour Path) 13,006 sample units;

Target population: migrants living in Italy who have or had a legal job since 12 months before the survey

Methodology: Centre sampling

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide15

Step 2

Identification of integration scores by processing the frequencies of the sample distribution of the variables selected

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide16

Step 2 (cont’d)

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide17

Step 2 (cont’d)

For each modality the corresponding score is obtained through the difference between the sum of the previous frequencies (relative) less the sum of the following ones. It can be remarked that, for any variable, the mean score for the whole set of sample units will be zero.

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide18

Set of scores(for each of the 4 dimensions)

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide19

Steps 3 & 4

Assignment the scores to each statistical unit according to its modality of the variable under consideration (total 13,006 units) & Average of the 4 partial scores (Final Mean score)

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

(*) Present or last job

slide20

Steps 5

Processing the integration scores together with structural data (personal features, education, social inclusion, etc.)

Integration Index: final mean scores by year of arrival to Italy and gender

Source: Ismu-PerLa 2009

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide21

Additional remark

Positive integration scores seem to be associated to better work conditionsscores

Source: Ismu-PerLa 2009

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide22

A further example

  • Financial and ‘asset’ integration, based on Bank of Italy’s SHIW (Survey on Household Income and Wealth)  biennial survey ran since the 1960’s on a sample of resident households (including foreign citizens)
  • 4 dimensions
  • Home ownership
  • Having a current account or deposit
  • Net income from work
  • Net wealth per capita

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide23

The definition of financial and ‘asset’ integration (*)

“An adult who possesses a current account or a savings deposit with a bank or postal office, who is the owner of his/her dwelling, and has adequate financial resources (obtained by a work) and assets can be considered fully integrated from a financial point of view”.

(*) For economic resources refers to labor income (dependent and independent) for the whole assets to the complex of real assets and net financial assets held by the family and made in per capita terms.

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide24

Financial and ‘asset’ integration of foreign migrants (2006; 20-64 yrs)

Notes: our elaborations on SHIW data. Caveats are needed due to small sample size.

  • Men are more integrated than women, penalised by lower labour income, while they perform better in the other components referred to the household and not to the individual, plausibly reflecting the fact that women are less likely to live in single-person households (14%, versus 27% for men)
  • Integration increases with the level of education (especially due to the labour income dimension)

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

slide25

Financial and ‘asset’ integration - The effects of the crisis

Notes: our elaborations on SHIW data. Caveats are needed due to small sample size. Results are shown for the sake of illustration of the methodology.

  • In 2012 the degree of integration deteriorated wrt 2006 for both men (only due to the wealth component) and women (all dimensions)

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Micro and macro approaches can be fully achieved and can be complementary.
  • Periodical sample surveys are required to monitor integration levels of foreign population and to assess progress.
  • Individual level data from 2011 Census will offer an important opportunity to investigate in detail integration within migrant sub-populations and to compare them to the autochthons’.

Job and opportunities - Income and poverty| Giancarlo Blangiardo | Rome 17 - 18 June 2013