Defining Natural and “Un-Natural” Disasters • No place on Earth is immune to natural disasters. • Natural disasters are often the product of hydrological, geological, or meteorological events. • A combination of human-related factors including ecosystem destruction, climate change and population growth have been part of the cause of “un” natural disasters • An Un Natural disaster is a natural disturbance made worse by human activities. • Coral destruction on coastline allowed waves to become more powerful when they hit land.
The Connection Between Disasters and Conflicts • This chapter talks about why some disasters do not bring peace makers or help. • Some disasters are too small or have a slow onset do not grab the drama necessary to grab the worlds attention for intervention and help. • Some disasters such as drought do not attract the peacemaking abilities that would by a hurricane or tsunami
Storm Clouds and Silver Linings • Natural disasters both rapid and slow onset such as floods and droughts can undermine livelihoods and compromise human security. • May trigger social conflicts as well • Disasters create heavy economic tolls on the countries hit by natural disasters • In divided societies, conflicts may arise if relief is seen as a tool for favors to a group or community. • Resettlement post disasters may also create conflicts between feuding groups. • Disasters may create new conflicts in the midst of peacekeeping operations
Aceh: Breaking the Logjam • Post-Tsunami Aceh stated peacemaking operations to end the 30 year conflict • Political centralization and exploitation of natural resources stated and remain at the center of conflict • Humanitarian effort in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami kick started efforts to remove military influence in the government and the conflict. • An August 2005 peace agreement with Aceh included human rights, amnesty, reintegration, security, economy and political participation. Enabled the government have more freedom.
Sri Lanka: Neither War Nor Peace • Sri Lanka was torn in half by civil war until 1983 until a cease fire was reached • The cease fire however was focused on only two groups of the country instead of all, including the Buddhist and Muslim parties • Post Tsunami called for national unity and started cooperation from all groups. • Rifts between LTTE ( Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) and the governing party were not forgotten. • A Post Tsunami Operational Management Structure in 2005 brought together the fighting groups plus others to reconcile and bring their country together from the Tsunami
Humanitarian and Environmental Peacekeeping • Humanitarian efforts must be transformed into political change by addressing the base of conflicts and creating tasks to change conflict to peace • Environmental restoration after disasters is important because it aids a vulnerable ecosystem which has been weakened during a natural disaster • Peacekeeping operations are one of a kind. They either aid in the change from conflict to peace or they can deepen the conflict between feuding societies