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Abraham Maslow The Hierarchy of Needs

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  1. Abraham MaslowThe Hierarchy of Needs Linda Zimmerman Professor of Student Development Oakton Community College

  2. ABRAHAM MASLOW • was a leading humanistic psychologist (Third Force) • developed the Hierarchy of Needs • promoted the concept of self-actualization • was born in 1908, Brooklyn, New York

  3. Maslow’s Early Life • was the eldest of seven siblings • was a poor student as an adolescent • was pressured by dad to become an attorney • took one law class, dropped out of college for one year • entered U of WI one year later to study scientific psychology

  4. Maslow’s Professional Life • studied dominance in monkeys • received Ph.D. in experimental psychology in 1934 • was on the Brooklyn College faculty, 1937-1951 • was on the Brandeis U faculty, 1952-1969 • became a fellow of Laughlin Foundation in CA • died in 1970, age 62

  5. Hierarchy of Needs growth emotional physical

  6. Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Needs

  7. Physiological Needs • food • water • air • sleep

  8. Food: A Most Powerful Need • South American Rugby team crashed in 1970 • Food was the most pressing problem. • They ate human flesh for survival. • Even the strongest taboo was broken to fill the basic need for food.

  9. Food: A Most Powerful Need • Ik tribe in Uganda forced to give up hunting and live on unfertile land • long standing social mores dissolve - people became psychopathic • “ngag”, word for food, also becomes word for good • parents steal food from children, children from other children

  10. Hierarchy of Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  11. Safety Needs • from physical attack • from emotional attack • from fatal disease • from invasion • from extreme losses (job, family members, home, friends)

  12. Safety: A Most Powerful Need • when frightened, our thoughts and energies are diverted • threat of, or actual attack creates “fight or flight” reaction • threats to safety can be physical or emotional

  13. Hierarchy of Needs Love & Belonging Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  14. Love and Belonging (social/emotional) • Inclusion - part of a group: colleagues, peers, family, clubs • Affection - love and be loved • Control - influence over others and self

  15. Love and Belonging: A Most Powerful Need

  16. Hierarchy of Needs Esteem Needs Love & Belonging Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  17. Esteem Needs emotional (ego) • respect from others through: awards honors status • respect for self through: mastery achievement competence

  18. Esteem from Self and Others: A Most Powerful Need Congratulations

  19. Hierarchy of Needs B- Needs (being) Higher needs Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Love & Belonging Needs D- Needs Deficit Survival Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  20. Some Self-Actualizing People from History • Abraham Lincoln • Thomas Jefferson • Mahatma Gandhi • Albert Einstein • Eleanor Roosevelt • William James • Benedict Spinoza

  21. Self-Actualization Needs • stop cruelty and exploitation • encourage talent in others • try to be a good human being • do work one considers worthwhile • enjoy taking on responsibilities • prefer intrinsic satisfaction • seek truth • give unselfish love • be just

  22. Truth Goodness Beauty Unity Aliveness Uniqueness Perfection and Necessity Completion Justice and order Simplicity Richness Effortlessness Playfulness Self-sufficiency Meaningfulness B-Needs of the Self-Actualized

  23. Qualities of the Self-Actualized • An non-hostile sense of humor • Intimate personal relationships • Acceptance of self and others • Spontaneity and simplicity • Freshness of appreciation • More peak experiences • Democratic values • Independence

  24. Transcendance: The Highest Growth Need Transcendance is the height of self actualization

  25. Transcendance • The need to connect to a higher being (God) • The spiritual need to connect to all other beings • The need to love and care for the welfare of all life • The need to alleviate suffering and do justice

  26. People who have reached transcendance include • Jesus • Buddha • Archbishop Romero • St Francis • Martin Luther King Jr. • Mother Theresa • Bishop Tutu