Thursday, October 20th, 2011 3rd Conjugation “-io” Verbs and 4th Conjugation Verbs in the Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Active; Personal Pronouns and Some More Demonstratives
Fourth Conjugation Verbs • Similar to 1st and 2nd Conjugation in that it possesses a long stem vowel. • 1st Conjugation stem vowel = “-ā”. • 2nd Conjugation stem vowel = “-ē”. • 4th Conjugation stem vowel = “-ī”; retained throughout present, future, and imperfect tenses but is shortened bef0re vowels and final “t”. • Otherwise conjugates like 3rd Conjugation.
4th Conjugation – Audiō, Audīre (hear)Present, Indicative, Active • Audiō = I hear. • Audīs = You hear. • Audit = He,she, it hears. • Audīmus = We hear. • Audītis = You hear. • Audiunt = They here. • Note: Personal endings added to the verb stem “Audī –”; “-u-” retained in 3rd person plural.
4th Conjugation – Audiō, Audīre (hear)Future, Indicative, Active • Audiam = I shall hear. • Audiēs = You will hear. • Audiet = She, He, It will hear. • Audiēmus = We shall hear. • Audiētis = You will hear. • Audient = They will hear. • Note: “-e” = characteristic vowel of the future tense; same as 3rd Conjugation; “-i” stem is retained.
4th Conjugation – Audiō, Audīre (hear)Imperfect, Indicative, Active • Audiēbam = I was hearing. • Audiēbās = You were hearing. • Audiēbat = She, He, It was hearing. • Audiēbāmus = We were hearing. • Audiēbātis = You were hearing. • Audiēbant = They were hearing. • Note: “-ba-” characteristic feature of the imperfect indicative active.
Infinitive and Imperative of Audio, Audire • Infinitive – Audīre = To hear. • Singular Imperative = Audī. • Plural Imperative = Audīte. • NOTE: Learn the pattern, but also memorize.
3rd Conjugation “-io” Verbs • Conjugates similarly to 4th Conjugation verbs with a few notable differences. • The “-i” stem is always short. • Imperative ends in short “-e”. • Infinitive retains the short “-e” but not the “-i”. • Potential source of confusion because the infinitive suggests that the stem ends in “e”.
3rd Conjugation “-io” Verbs:Present, Indicative, Active of Capiō, Capere (Take) • Capiō = I take. • Capis = You take. • Capit = He/She/It takes. • Capimus = We take. • Capitis = You take. • Capiunt = They take. • Note: Short “i” retained throughout. The “u’ is retained in the third person plural; looks like a 4th Conjugation; Distinguished by different infinitive.
3rd Conjugation “-io” Verbs:Future, Indicative, Active of Capiō, Capere (Take) • Capiam = I shall take. • Capiēs = You will take. • Capiet = He/She/It will take. • Capiēmus = We shall take. • Capiētis = You will take. • Capient = They will take. • Note: the stem ending in “-e” indicates the future tense on as in 3rd and 4th conjugation verbs.
3rd Conjugation “-io” Verbs:Imperfect, Indicative, Active of Capiō, Capere (Take) • Capiebam = I was taking. • Capiebas = You were taking. • Capiebat = He/She/It was taking. • Capiebamus = We were taking. • Capiebatis = You were taking. • Capiebant = They were taking. • Note: “-ba-” indicates the imperfect, indicative tense as in all other conjugations
Imperative and Present Infinitive of “Capio” • Singular Imperative = Cape = Take! • Plural Imperative = Capite = Take! • Present Infinitive = Capere = To take. • Note: Infinitive is similar to 3rd Conjugation (i.e. Agere “to do, act, drive etc.); distinguished from regular 3rd Conjugation verbs by the “i” stem ending like a 4th Conjugation verb.
Nom – Ego = I. Gen – Mei = of me. Dat – Mihi = to/for me. Acc – Me = me. Abl – Me = by/with/from me. Nom – Nos = we. Gen - Nostrum/Nostri = of us. Dat – Nobis = to/for us. Acc – Nos = us. Abl – Nobis = by/with/from us. Nom – Tu = you. Gen – Tui = of you. Dat – Tibi = to/for you. Acc – Te = you. Abl – Te = by/with/from you. Nom – Vos = You. Gen – Vestrum/Vestri = of you. Dat – Vobis = to/for you. Acc – Vos = you. Abl – Vobis = by/with/from you. Personal Pronouns, Ego = “I” and Tu = “You”
Notes on the Use of Personal Pronouns • Pronouns are used in place of nouns; used in the same way as nouns are used. • The nominatives of ego and tu rarely used except for emphasis. • The preposition “cum” (with) is followed by a noun in the ablative; but it is attached to the end of the pronoun it modifies (i.e. not cum nobis “with us” but nobiscum “with us.”) • Genitives of ego and tu ARE NOT used to indicate possession; possessive pronouns meus, -a, um (my), noster, -tra, -trum (our), tuus, -a, -um (your, sing.), vester, -tra, -trum (your, pl.); declines like magnus, magna, magnum; must agree with noun they modify in gender, number, and case. • Genitives of is, ea, id CAN BE used to indicate possession (i.e. eorum/earum = their); do have to agree in gender, number, and case with the thing possessed – cf. p. 69. • Is, Ea, Id sometimes used as demonstratives (this, that) but in a less emphatic sense than hic, ille.
Demonstratives Idem, Eadem, Idem(The Same – man, woman, thing) • Formed by adding suffix –dem to is, ea, id. • Therefore declines like is, ea, id with the exception accusative singular and genitive plural forms. • Can be used as adjectives and attached to nouns; must agree with the noun it modifies in gender, number, and case. • Cf. p. 71.