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Interaction Styles

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  1. Interaction Styles Direct Manipulation Menu selection, Form Fillin, Dialog boxes Command Languages, Natural Languages Course 6, CMC, 07/10/03

  2. Toward an Interaction Style • High concept definition • functionality • goals • benefits • Task analysis • users and tasks • Choice of interaction style • easy to learn, to apply, to retain over time • relevant to users task HC6

  3. OAI model HC6

  4. Direct Manipulation: 3 integrated principles • Continuous representation of objects and actions of interest with meaningful visual metaphors • Physical actions or presses of labeled buttons instead of complex syntax • Rapid incremental reversible operations whose effect on objects of interest is visible immediately HC6

  5. Visual Thinking and Icons • Commercial graphic designers, semiotically oriented academics, data-visualization gurus • Preferences vary by user and by task • Icons or Text? • How to design icons? • Sound and Animation added? HC6

  6. Problems with Direct Manipulation • Visual representations too large for screen, too detailed • Visual representations without obvious meaning • Misleading metaphors • Shift hardware devices HC6

  7. Menu Selection • Effective: recognition • Early systems (selection via keyboard) • full screen menus: numbered, textual • Modern systems (selection by mouse clicks) • pull-down and pop-up menus • radio buttons and check boxes • embedded links • menu items: textual, graphic, auditory HC6

  8. Organization Menu Items • Meaningful: Superiority categorical menu organization over alphabetical organization • Menu structures: single menus; linear sequence of menus; strict tree structures; acyclic networks; cyclic networks • Key to menu structure: task-related objects and actions HC6

  9. Single Menus • binary menus • multiple-item menus • multiple-selection menus (check boxes) • pull-down and pop-up menus • scrolling and two-dimensional menus • alphasliders • embedded links • iconic menus, toolbars, palettes HC6

  10. Alphaslider HC6

  11. HC6

  12. Embedded Links (example)Glosser HC6

  13. Tree Structures HC6

  14. Pull-down menu (example) HC6

  15. Pie menu (example) HC6

  16. Tree-Structured Menus: Problems • overlapping categories • extraneous items • conflicting classifications • unfamiliar jargon • generic terms • too many levels • users loss of orientation HC6

  17. Suggested Rules • create task-related groups of logically similar items • form groups that cover all possibilities • make sure that items ar nonoverlapping • use familiar terminology, but ensure that items are distinct from one another • the fewer the levels, the greater the ease of decision making • add menu map to help users stay oriented HC6

  18. Sequence of Item Presentation • There is a task-related ordering • chronological • increasing/decreasing (number, length, volume, temperature, … ) • There is no task-related ordering • alphabetic • grouping of related items • most frequently used first • most important first HC6

  19. Long response times Slow display rates Use command language Greater memory demands Short response times Rapid display rates Use menu selection Cues to elicit recognition Response Time & Display Rate HC6

  20. Form Fillin • Many fields of data are necessary • Some guidelines from practitioners: • meaningful title • comprehensible instructions • logical grouping and sequencing of fields • familiar field labels • error prevention, correction, messages • completion signal • List- and Combo Boxes, Coded Fields HC6

  21. Dialog Boxes • Combine Menu Selection and Form Fillin • Additional concerns • consistency across all system dialog boxes • relationships with other items on screen • Guidelines for internal layout and external relationships HC6

  22. Dialog Box (example) HC6

  23. Command Languages • Strategies for command syntax • simple command set • command + argument(s): DELETE FILEA • command + option(s) + argument(s): • PRINT/3, HQ FILEA • A0821DCALGA0300P • hierarchical command structure • CREATE FILEA LOCPR1 • DISPLAY DIR1 SCR2 HC6

  24. Command Languages • meaningful structure • consistent argument ordering • keywords vs. Symbols • change all KO to OK vs. RS: /KO/, /OK/; * • congruent hierarchical forms of commands • move robot forward vs. advance vs. go • move robot backward vs. retreat vs. Back • naming and abbreviations HC6

  25. Natural Language in Computing • Natural-language interaction • restricted to specific tasks • \erase worksheet; \insert row; \total all columns • annoying cursor movements from object to toolbar • automatic speech for selecting painting tools • Natural-language Queries • Text-database Searching HC6