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FDR and the New Deal. 100 Days. On inauguration day 1933 FDR told the crowd, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” From March to June of 1933 FDR pushed reforms through congress at a feverish pitch Relief, Jobs and stimulate the economy

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Presentation Transcript
100 days
100 Days
  • On inauguration day 1933 FDR told the crowd, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
  • From March to June of 1933 FDR pushed reforms through congress at a feverish pitch
    • Relief, Jobs and stimulate the economy
    • Used some of the programs from WWI which controlled the economy along with Hoover’s reforms and state reforms
new deal and banking
New Deal and Banking
  • Banks were closed on March 6th
    • Pushed the Emergency Banking Act
      • Gave the government authority to check the financial health of banks
      • FDIC insured deposits even if the bank failed
        • Up to $5,000
      • March 15th banks opened and for the first time in the Depression deposits exceeded withdrawals
new deal programs
New Deal Programs
  • Civilian Works Administration
    • Employed workers to build and improve parks, roads and airports
  • Civilian Conservation Core:
    • Employed unmarried men for forest, beach and park restoration
  • Indian Reorganization Act:
    • Ended the sale of Indian Tribal Lands
new deal programs ii
New Deal Programs II
  • National Industrial Recovery Act
    • Tried to stop the decline of industrial prices
    • Set a minimum wage and other controls on industry
    • When prices rose due to higher wages and sales declined
  • Public Works Administration
    • Built the Grand Coulee Dam, Tribourough Bridge, the causeway between Florida and Key West
homes and farms
Homes and Farms
  • Home Owners Loan Corporation
    • Refinanced mortgages for middle class Americans
  • Agricultural Adjustment Administration
    • Tried to raise farm prices
      • Paid farmers not to raise certain crops.
  • Tennessee Valley Authority
    • Created jobs, dams, electrical grid and flood control in the Tennessee River Valley
    • This was one of the least modernized areas of the country
critics
Critics
  • Former President Hoover felt the reforms could lead to a “state-run state-controlled economic system”
  • The NRA and AAA were deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
    • NRA president could pass laws on local commerce
    • AAA taxes paying farmers not to grow crops
court packing scheme
Court Packing Scheme
  • Due to the Supreme Court invalidation of New Deal FDR wanted to sway the court in his favor
  • The Constitution does not specify how many judges there could be
    • Last changes in 1869 to 9 justices
  • FDR said he wanted to lighten the load on the judges over 70
    • This would allow him to add six more justices
    • People saw through his scheme to pack the Supreme Court in his favor
wagner act
Wagner Act
  • July 1935 NIRA is declared unconstitutional
  • Congress then passes the Wagner Act
    • Allows closed shops
      • Only union members can work there
    • Collective bargaining
      • Workers negotiate as a whole for benefits
    • Outlawed spying on unions and blacklisting union leaders
    • Sets up the National Labor Relations Board to enforce the law
    • 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act
      • Sets minimum wage and ends child labor
legacy of the new deal
Legacy of the New Deal
  • The President is expected to solve problems
  • Government can no intervene in major problems
  • Wagner Act
  • Social Security
  • Farm Programs that pay farmers not to plant crops
  • Security and Exchange Commission
  • Public works projects
end of the great depression
End of the Great Depression
  • FDR’s New Deal programs did help Americans but government spending was never enough to revitalize the economy
  • John Maynard Keynes believed that in times of economic stress large government spending should be used to bolster the economy
    • Keynesian economics is controversial even today
  • When Japan attacks Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1941 increased government spending and the building of the American war machine finally pull America out the Depression.