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The Systems Development Methodologies. Objectives. Describe the information Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Explain prototyping Explain Rapid Application Development (RAD) Describe Join Applications Development (JAD) ***. A Bit of History….

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objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the information Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
  • Explain prototyping
  • Explain Rapid Application Development (RAD)
  • Describe Join Applications Development (JAD)

***

a bit of history
A Bit of History…
  • 1950s: focus on efficient automation of existing processes
  • 1960s: advent of 3GL, faster and more reliable computers
  • 1970s: system development becomes more like an engineering discipline
  • 1980s: major breakthrough with 4GL, CASE tools, object oriented methods
  • 1990s: focus on system integration, GUI applications, client/server platforms, Internet
  • The new century: Web application development, wireless PDAs, component-based applications
methodology
Methodology
  • System Development Methodology is a standard process followed in an organisation to conduct all the steps necessary to analyse, design, implement, and maintain information systems (Hoffer, 200?)
  • Systems Development Life Cycle
    • Planning
      • Problem definition
      • Feasibility study
    • Analysis
    • Design
    • Implementation
    • Maintenance
slide5
SDLC
  • Planning
    • an organisation’s total information system needs are identified, analysed, prioritised, and arranged
  • Analysis
    • system requirements are studied and structured
  • Design
    • a description of the recommended solution is converted into logical and then physical system specifications
  • Logical design
    • all functional features of the system chosen for development in analysis are described independently of any computer platform
slide6
SDLC
  • Physical design
    • the logical specifications of the system from logical design are transformed into the technology-specific details from which all programming and system construction can be accomplished
  • Implementation
    • the information system is coded, tested, installed and supported in the organisation
  • Maintenance
    • an information system is systematically repaired and improved
problems with the waterfall sdlc
Problems with the Waterfall SDLC
  • System requirements “locked in” after being determined (can't change).
  • Limited user involvement (only in requirements phase).
  • Too much focus on milestone deadlines of SDLC phases to the detriment of sound development practices

***

alternatives to sdlc
Alternatives to SDLC
  • Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools
  • Prototyping
  • Joint Application Development
  • Rapid Application Development
  • Agile methodologies
  • eXtreme programming
  • Object Oriented Programming (OOP)

***

case tools
CASE Tools
  • Diagramming tools enable graphical representation
  • Computer displays and report generators help prototype how systems “look and feel”
  • Analysis tools automatically check for consistency in diagrams, forms, and reports
  • Central repository for integrated storage of diagrams, reports, and project management specifications
  • Documentation generators standardise technical and user documentation
  • Code generators enable automatic generation of programs and database code directly from design documents, diagrams, forms, and reports
joint application development
Joint Application Development
  • Structured process involving users, analysts, and managers
  • Several-day intensive workgroup sessions
  • Purpose: to specify or review system requirements

***

rapid application development
Rapid Application Development
  • Methodology to radically decrease design and implementation time
  • Involves: extensive user involvement, prototyping, JAD sessions, integrated CASE tools, and code generators
summary
Summary
  • Information system methodologies are used to guide the development of information systems
  • The SDLC is seen as the starting point from which many alternative methodologies have developed
  • Since the SDLC many alternatives have been developed and used, such as JAD and RAD
  • There are probably thousands of methodologies now!

***

questions
Questions…
  • …are there any?
resources
Resources
  • Software development methodology
  • The Systems Development Life Cycle
  • RAD
  • JAD
  • CASE Tools