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Structural Analysis in Document Interpretation: a Primer. Mathieu Delalandre ¹ , Eric Trupin ¹ , Jean-Marc Ogier ² ¹ PSI Laboratory, Rouen University, France ² L3I Laboratory, La Rochelle University, France Phd thesis website: http://site.voila.fr/roxml. Plan. Introduction

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structural analysis in document interpretation a primer

Structural Analysis in Document Interpretation:a Primer

Mathieu Delalandre¹ , Eric Trupin¹, Jean-Marc Ogier²

¹PSI Laboratory, Rouen University, France

²L3I Laboratory, La Rochelle University, France

Phd thesis website: http://site.voila.fr/roxml

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

slide2
Plan
  • Introduction
  • Global Structural Analysis
  • Local Structural Analysis
  • Method Combination
  • Conclusion

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

slide3
Plan
  • Introduction
  • Global Structural Analysis
  • Local Structural Analysis
  • Method Combination
  • Conclusion

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

introduction
Introduction
  • document interpretation
    • handwriting
    • structured document
    • graphics (symbol, technical document, map)

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

introduction1

A

C

B

D

Introduction
  • shape recognition process
    • statistical analysis and recognition (Jain 2000)
    • structural analysis and recognition (Tombre 1996)

feature extraction

or ‘analysis’

(Loncarnic 1998)

recognition

<network>

<part id=”1”>

<symbols>

<labels></labels>

</symbols>

</part>

</network>

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

introduction2
Introduction
  • structural recognition
    • graph-matching approach (Hancock 2002)
    • grammar approach (Blostein 1995)
  • structural analysis

local

global

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

slide7
Plan
  • Introduction
  • Global Structural Analysis
  • Local Structural Analysis
  • Method Combination
  • Conclusion

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

global structural analysis
Global Structural Analysis
  • applications
    • structured document
      • form (Altamura 2001)
      • character string (Loo 2001)
      • mathematical formula (Leplumey 2002)
    • graphics
      • technical drawing (Burge 1995)
      • symbol (Delalandre 2002)

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

global structural analysis1
Global Structural Analysis
  • approaches :
    • direct : document  object (up bottom)
    • indirect : connected component  object (bottom up)

choice of granularity exploration

as multi-resolution analysis

(Tan 2001)

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

global structural analysis2
Global Structural Analysis
  • split & merge (Hadjar 2001)
  • graph of Voronoi’s regions (Burge 1995)

indirect (Burge 1995)

direct (Hadjar 2001)

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

global structural analysis3
Global Structural Analysis
  • method comparison
    • direct methods
      • advantages : low complexity, high-level object
      • drawbacks : object segmentation
    • indirect methods
      • advantages : object segmentation
      • drawbacks : low level object  recognition step

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

slide12
Plan
  • Introduction
  • Global Structural Analysis
  • Local Structural Analysis
  • Method Combination
  • Conclusion

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

local structural analysis
Local Structural Analysis
  • applications
    • character
      • latin (Trier 1996)
      • asian (Fan 2002)
    • graphics
      • technical drawing (Liu 1999)
      • symbol (Lladós-2001)

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

local structural analysis1

A

A

A

C

C

C

B

B

B

D

D

D

Local Structural Analysis
  • four steps:

object graph

extraction

mathematical

approximation

high level object

construction

object graph

correction

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

local structural analysis2
Local Structural Analysis
  • object graph extraction (1)

skeletonisation

contouring

tracking

run

region

meshes

segmented object

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

local structural analysis3

tracking

contouring

skeletonisation

Local Structural Analysis
  • object graph extraction (2)
    • skeletonisation based methods, two steps:
      • skeletonisation (Lam 1995)
      • skeleton graph extraction (Tombre 1999)(Lau 2002)
    • contouring based methods
      • morphological based methods (Hasan 2000)
      • following based methods (Ablameyko & Pridmore 2000)
    • tracking based methods, two tracking types:
      • line tracking (Song 2002)
      • junction tracking (Ogier 1992)

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

local structural analysis4

run

region

Local Structural Analysis
  • object graph extraction (3)
    • run decomposition based methods
      • vertical and horizontal run graph (Burge 1998)
    • region decomposition based methods
      • orientation map (Cao 2000) and wave aggregation (Delalandre 2003)

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

local structural analysis5

segmented object

meshes

Local Structural Analysis
  • object graph extraction (4)
    • meshes based methods, two steps:
      • vectorisation with meshes library (vaxivière 1995)
    • segmented based methods, two segmentations:
      • line, circle and ellipsis segmentation (Matas 1999) (Su 2002)
      • junction segmentation (Chen 2000)

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

local structural analysis6
Local Structural Analysis
  • mathematical approximation
    • vector, circle, and curve fitting (Rosin 1995)
  • high level object construction
    • circle reconstruction (Hilaire 2001)
    • contour matching (Zou 2000) (Ramel 2000)

circle reconstruction

mathematical approximation

contour matching

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

local structural analysis7
Local Structural Analysis
  • object graph correction, some examples:
    • pruning merging (Delalandre 2003)
    • junction fusion (Lin 2002)
    • vectorial correction (Hilaire 2001)
    • and so on …

pruning & merging

junction fusion

vectorial correction

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

local structural analysis8

Criterion

best method

junction

tracking, run, region

morphology

run, region

invariance

skeletonisation, contouring

sensitivity

object segmentation

semantic

meshes, tracking, object segmentation

reversibility

region, run

complexity

tracking, meshes

Local Structural Analysis
  • method comparison (1)
    • object graph extraction, seven criteria:
  • Junction: junction detection
  • Morphology: various shape analysis
  • Invariance: scale and orientation change
  • Sensitivity: noise resistance
  • Semantic: low or high level object
  • Reversibility: image return
  • Complexity: low algorithmic complexity

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

slide22
Plan
  • Introduction
  • Global Structural Analysis
  • Local Structural Analysis
  • Method Combination
  • Conclusion

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

method combination
Comparison combination

different analysis and recognition, then comparison

 multi representation

skeletonisation and contouring (Nakajima 1999)

Analysis

Recognition 1

comparison

Analysis

Recognition 2

Method Combination

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

method combination1

Analysis or

Recognition

Recognition

Hybrid

construction

Analysis or

Recognition

Method Combination
  • hybrid combination
    • different analysis, then hybrid graph construction and recognition
      •  multi representation
    • contour concavity and region graph (El-Badawy 2002)
    • statistical structural approach (Delalandre 2003)

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

method combination2

Analysis or

Recognition

Analysis

Recognition

Method Combination
  • cooperative combination
    • first analysis in or order to help the second analysis
      •  process simplification
    • object simplification (Song 2002)

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

slide26
Plan
  • Introduction
  • Global Structural Analysis
  • Local Structural Analysis
  • Method Combination
  • Conclusion

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

conclusion
Conclusion
  • structural analysis:
    • image  graph
    • groups or decomposes the connected components
  • method combination:
    • a research perspective
      •  multi representation
      •  process simplification

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003

slide28
End
  • sorry for my absent, any question ?
    • Mail: mathieu.delalandre@univ-rouen.fr
    • Phd Website: http://site.voila.fr/roxml

ICISP’2003 : Agadir, Morocco : 24 June, 2003