Unit 5 • Topic: The Cold War (1945-1991) • The United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as the two strongest powers in international affairs. Ideologically opposed, they challenged one another in a series of confrontations known as the Cold War. The costs of this prolonged contest weakened the USSR so that it collapsed due to internal upheavals as well as American pressure. The Cold War had social and political implications in the United States.
Chapter 5: End of the Cold War • Content Statement: The collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the USSR brought an end to the Cold War. • Expectations for Learning: Explain how the collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the USSR brought an end to the Cold War era.
Section 1: Fall of Communism • Content Elaboration: There were multiple causes for the collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The effect of these was the reduction of the tensions between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. that characterized the Cold War period. Several communist governments in Eastern Europe gave up power following mass demonstrations for democracy. The collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in independent republics that moved to institute democratic reforms and introduce free-market economies. This brought an end to the Cold War era.
Independence Movements in Former Soviet Satellites • Reminder: After WWII, the Soviet Union stayed in Eastern European countries and set up communist governments. These countries acted as a buffer zone between the S.U. and western Europe.
Reasons for the Movements • Economic problems—no money, no food, etc • People wanted freedom of speech and other civil liberties • People wanted free elections
Countries That Won Independence • Poland • Hungary • Czechoslovakia • Romania • Bulgaria • East Germany • Tearing Down of the Berlin Wall • President Reagan: “Tear Down This Wall” • ***All of this done in late 1980s and early 1990s.
Fall of the Soviet Union • maybe the most dramatic event since WWII • collapse of SU and end of Cold War • 70 years: SU maintained power over its people • HOW DID IT ALL END????????
Causes of Soviet Collapse • There were many causes • – 1. Biggest: people wanted to be free and • prosperous • – 2. Arms race made economy weak • • A. Communism: profit goes to gov. • • B. Gov. spends $$$$ on arms/space race • • C. People’s needs are not met • • D. People are hungry and unhappy • • E. People angry at gov. and want change
Effects of the Arms Race • a. US in 2nd half of 20th Century • – economic prosperity • – choices: food, clothing, housing, entertainment • – gov. spending millions on military • • b. SU • – gov. controlled economy = fewer choices • – gov. spending on military = reduction in • spending on consumer goods • – common items in short supply (milk, soap, • bread, etc) • – long lines to buy items • – no housing--many lived together
Mikhail Gorbachev: leader of the S.U. when it fell apart • Took over S.U. in 1985 • He was a reformer • Glastnost: new policy of openness, including freedom of speech and to criticize the government • Perestroika: changing the economy. People could now own land and factories • Electoral process changed: non-Communists could now run for offices
Mikhail Gorbachev • These reforms led to the collapse of the Soviet Union • When Eastern European Communist governments began to fail, S.U. did not intervene
Section 2: The United States Helps • Content Elaboration: The political and economic turmoil occurring in some of the new governments posed new challenges for the United States. The U.S. supported economic and education reforms by providing assistance to some of the former communist countries.
OGT Short Answer • Why was the dismantling of the Berlin Wall a symbol of the political events during late 1980’s Europe?
OGT Extended Response • Explain 2 reasons for the fall of the Soviet Union.
OGT Extended Response • Explain 2 reasons why Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe began to break from their Soviet Union backed communist governments.