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Nomenclature. Chapter 4. Nomenclature = Naming. Common names were created before there was a system in place More than 4 million chemical compounds, memorizing names would be impossible A system makes it much easier. Binary Compounds. Compounds composed of 2 elements 2 types

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nomenclature

Nomenclature

Chapter 4

nomenclature naming
Nomenclature = Naming
  • Common names were created before there was a system in place
  • More than 4 million chemical compounds, memorizing names would be impossible
  • A system makes it much easier
binary compounds
Binary Compounds
  • Compounds composed of 2 elements
  • 2 types
    • Metal and Nonmetal
    • Two Nonmetals
4 1 naming compounds that contain a metal and a nonmetal
4.1 Naming Compounds That Contain a Metal and a Nonmetal
  • Remember: When metals and nonmetals combine the compound contains ions
  • Resulting substance is a binary ionic compound
    • Contain cation and anion in that order
  • To name them simply name ions
    • Cation is element name
    • Anion is root of element name with –ide at end
    • NaCl is sodium chloride
slide5
Certain metal ions form only one cation
    • Na is always Na+
    • Cs is always Cs+
    • Ca is always Ca2+
  • We will call these Type I cations and they form Type I binary compounds
  • Other metal ions can form more than one cation
    • Cr can form Cr2+ or Cr3+
    • Lower oxidation number will end in –ous
    • Higher oxidation number will end in -ic
  • We will call these Type II cations and they form Type II binary compounds
type i binary ionic compounds
Type I Binary Ionic Compounds
  • Cation always named first, anion second
  • When a single element is the cation we simply use its name
  • When a single element is the anion take the root and add –ide
  • Examples
    • NaI is sodium iodide
    • CaO is calcium oxide
    • What would KI be? Potassium iodide
    • What would CsBr be? Cesium bromide
  • Do Practice problems on page 87
type ii binary ionic compounds
Type II Binary Ionic Compounds
  • Need to specify which cation is used
    • Is it Cr2+ or Cr3+?
  • We will use Roman Numerals in name
  • So if it is FeCl2 which Iron is it? Fe2+ (the ferrous ion) or Fe3+ (the ferric ion)?
    • we know Chlorine has a 1- oxidation number so 2 (1-) = 2-, what must Fe be to cancel this out?
    • Fe must be 2+ so it is Fe2+
    • So name would be Iron II chloride
  • Table 4.2 page 90
4 2 binary compounds that contain only nonmetals type iii
4.2 Binary Compounds That Contain Only Nonmetals (Type III)
  • Write first element
  • Write second element
  • Add prefix to 1st element (but not mono-)
  • Add prefix to 2nd element
  • Why do we do this?
    • NO, N2O5, and NO2 would all be nitrogen oxide under the normal rules
    • Instead they are Nitrogen monoxide, Dinitrogen pentoxide, and Nitrogen dioxide
  • one –mono
  • two - di
  • three - tri
  • four - tetra
  • five - penta
  • six - hexa
  • seven - hepta
  • eight - octa
  • nine - nona
  • ten - deca
4 3 review
4.3 Review
  • Type I
    • metal and nonmetal
    • Metal cation has only 1 oxidation number
  • Type II
    • Metal and nonmetal
    • Metal cation has more than 1 oxidation number
    • Tell which ox. # it is with roman numerals
  • Type III
    • Nonmetal and nonmetal
    • Use prefixes to name
4 4 naming compounds that contain polyatomic ions
4.4 naming Compounds That Contain Polyatomic Ions
  • FIRST: Copy Table 4.4 on page 100 into notes
  • Polyatomic ion – a charged group of atoms bound together
  • Oxyanion – oxygen and another element
    • Smallest – hypo-
    • Lower - -ite (If only 2, smallest)
    • Higher - - ate (If only 2, largest)
    • Largest – hyper
slide12
When naming compounds with polyatomic ions follow same rules but anion (second part of formula) is a polyatomic ion just name it
4 5 naming acids
4.5 Naming Acids
  • Acid – produces H+ ions (protons) in water
    • Tastes sour (not a good test)
    • It is like a molecule with a H+ attached to an anion
  • If no oxygen
    • Hydro- in front, -ic at end
    • HCl is Hydrochloric acid
  • If oxygen
    • Root of central element of anion or anion name with –ic or –ous
      • Anion ends in –ate then replace with –ic
      • Anion ends with –ite then replace with -ous
4 6 writing formulas from names
4.6 Writing Formulas From Names
  • You know how to do this