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Copy the following on NB p. 17, skipping one line between each one. • Jefferson’s foreign policy – • Stephen Decatur – • blockade – • impressment – • the Leopard – • Embargo Act of 1807 – • Madison’s solution – • Tecumseh’s goal – • William Henry Harrison – • Treaty of Fort Wayne – • Battle of Tippecanoe – • Henry Clay – • War Hawks –
CHAPTER 10: THE JEFFERSON ERASection 3: Problems with Foreign Powers Today we will describe foreign policy challenges that Jefferson faced.
Vocabulary • blockade – use of force to prevent transportation of goods or people into or out of an area • impressment – kidnapping of sailors to work on British ships • embargo – government order banning trade with another country
Check for Understanding • What are we going to do today? • How is a military draft like impressment? • What is the difference between an embargo and a boycott? • What would a blockade of a country’s coastline look like?
What We Already Know During both the Washington and Adams presidencies, actions of the French government nearly led to war with France.
What We Already Know American victory over the Indians at the battle of Fallen Timbers opened up most of the Ohio River Valley to white settlement.
What We Already Know For fifty years, France and Britain had been in an almost constant state of war with each other.
Jefferson’s Foreign Policy • When Thomas Jefferson took office in 1801, he wanted to focus on domestic concerns. • Like George Washington, he advised Americans to seek the friendship of all nations, but to enter into “entangling alliances with none.”
Jefferson’s desire for isolation from other nations’ problems was doomed to fail. American merchants were busily engaged in trade all over the world.
The Louisiana Purchase would bring conflict with other nations in the West. Also, the United States could not control the actions of foreign nations.
In 1804, the United States was at war with Tripoli on the North African coast. • Pirates sent from Tripoli had repeatedly attacked American merchant ships. • The U.S. warship Philadelphia had been captured by Tripoli.
U.S. Navy Lieutenant Stephen Decatur was sent to fight the pirates. • Decatur set fire to the Philadelphia so that it could not be used by the enemy. • He then escaped under enemy fire with only one man wounded. • The conflict with Tripoli showed how hard it was for the United States to stay out of foreign affairs while its citizens participated so heavily in overseas trade.
Check for Understanding Be sure to re-state the question in your response! A ask B:What was the goal of Jefferson’s foreign policy? The goal of Jefferson’s foreign policy was to keep the United States from getting involved with other countries.
Check for Understanding Be sure to re-state the question in your response! B ask A: Who was Stephen Decatur? Stephen Decatur was a naval officer sent to destroy the U.S. warship Philadelphia – which had been captured by Tripoli – so that it could not be used by the enemy.
Problems with France and England • By 1805, the British set up a blockade and began to inspect U.S. ships and seize those carrying food and supplies to France. • France then declared it would seize American merchant ships that submitted to British inspection. • If Americans obeyed the British rules, their ships could be seized by the French. If they obeyed the French rules, their ships could be seized by the British.
Check for Understanding Be sure to re-state the question in your response! A ask B:Why did Britain and France try to keep American ships from trading in Europe? They were at war with each other and wanted to prevent the Americans from providing food and supplies to their enemies.
Britain also interfered with U.S. trade by the impressment of about 6,000 American sailors to work on British ships between 1803 and 1812.
Impressment is the seizing of foreign sailors by force. What is impressment?
10. How did the British and French interfere with American shipping? French ships sent pirate fleets to capture American ships. British ships seized American ships carrying goodsto France. French ships seized American ships carrying goodsto Britain. British ships impressed American sailors. French ships sank American ships carrying goods to any European markets. Choose all that are true!
The Chesapeake Incident • In 1807, the British ship Leopard attacked an American naval ship, the Chesapeake, off the coast of Virginia, and three Americans lost their lives in the battle. • The attack aroused widespread anger. • Many Americans wanted to declare war, but Jefferson decided against it.
Trade as a Weapon • In response to the Chesapeake incident, Jefferson asked Congress to pass the Embargo Act of 1807. • American ships were no longer allowed to sail to foreign ports and closed American ports to British ships.
Jefferson’s policy was more harmful to Americans than to the Europeans. • Southern and Western farmers lost markets for their grain, cotton, and tobacco. • Shippers lost income, and many violated the embargo by making false claims about where they were going. • By the time Congress repealed the Embargo Act, the American shipping industry was nearly destroyed.
11. How did Jefferson respond to the Europeans’ interference? • He ordered that all ships be escorted by a U.S. naval warship. • He had Congress pass an embargo law stopping all foreign trade. • He persuaded Congress to expand the U.S. navy, in preparation for war. • He sent Stephen Decatur to attack the European fleets.
By the time James Madison took office in 1809, Congress had already repealed the embargo. • Madison called for a law that allowed merchants to trade with either France or Britain. • Trade with either country would begin when they agreed to respect U.S. ships. • But this law proved no more effective than the embargo.
Trouble on the Frontier • American settlers believed that the British were stirring up Native American resistance to frontier settlements. • Since the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, thousands of white settlers had swarmed into Ohio and then into Indiana.
Check for Understanding B ask A: Why were Americans in the Northwest angry with Britain? Americans in the Northwest were angry with Britain because many settlers believed that the British were stirring up Native American resistance to frontier settlements. Be sure to re-state the question in your response!
Jefferson’s Indian Policy • Jefferson promoted a policy of "civilization," getting Native Americans to farm the land, convert to Christianity, and live as white settlers lived. • Jefferson increased the number of trading posts on the frontier, in hopes that Native Americans would buy goods on credit, fall into debt, and sell off lands to repay the debts.
Tecumseh and Native American Unity • A Shawnee chief named Tecumseh believed that Indians were losing their land because they were separated into many different tribes. • He concluded that Native Americans had to unite to resist white Americans.
Check for Understanding A ask B: Who was Tecumseh? Be sure to re-state the question in your response! Tecumseh was a Shawnee chief who tried to unite Native American tribes in order to keep Indians from losing their land to whites.
The Fort Wayne Treaty of 1809 • In September 1809, William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana Territory, signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne with chiefs of the Miami, Delaware, and Potawatomi tribes. • They agreed to sell over three million acres of land, but Tecumseh declared the treaty meaningless.
The Battle of Tippecanoe After the Treaty of Fort Wayne, many Indians began to answer Tecumseh’s call for unity.
The Battle of Tippecanoe But in November 1811, while Tecumseh was away recruiting tribes for his alliance, the Shawnee were defeated by Harrison’s forces at the Battle of Tippecanoe. It was a severe setback for Tecumseh’s unity movement.
12. What was the goal of the Fort Wayne Treaty of 1809? • To make more land available for white settlement • To gain allies against the British in the War of 1812 • To set aside govern-ment land as Indian Territory • To promote trade between the two cultures
The War Hawks • After the battle of Tippecanoe, Tecumseh and his warriors were welcomed by the British to take shelter in Canada. • This raised anti-British feelings even higher in the West.
The War Hawks • Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina led a group of Congressmen who angrily demanded war against Britain. • These Congressmen who called for war were known as War Hawks.
The War Hawks They wanted British aid to Native Americans stopped, and they wanted the British out of Canada so that it could be added to the United States.
The War Hawks • Other Americans sought war because of the British violations of American rights at sea. • Urged on by the War Hawks, Congress declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812.
A ask B: Why did the War Hawks favor war? Check for Understanding The War Hawks favored war because they felt it was the best way to stop British support of Native American attacks. Be sure to re-state the question in your response!
13. Who were the War Hawks? • They were young members of Parliament who saw personal political opportunities in war with the United States. • They were Native Americans who wanted to keep Americans from settling the Ohio Valley. • They were a secret society who wanted to keep new immigrants out of the United States. • They were a group of young Congressmen who favored war with the British.
14. Why did Congress declare war on Britain? • It was America’s duty as France’s new ally. • Congress wanted the British to stop aiding the Native Americans. • Britain was violating American rights at sea. • Britain had violated the Embargo Act on several occasions. • British soldiers had launched an invasion from Canada. Choose all that are true!