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Chapter 2 Earth as a System. 2.1 Earth: a Unique Planet. Only known planet that: Has liquid water on its surface. Has an atmosphere that contains Oxygen gas Supports life Formed 4.6 billion years ago Not a perfect circle. Oblate sphere. Pg 27 Equatorial Circumference 40,074 km.

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2 1 earth a unique planet
2.1 Earth: a Unique Planet
  • Only known planet that:
    • Has liquid water on its surface.
    • Has an atmosphere that contains Oxygen gas
    • Supports life
    • Formed 4.6 billion years ago
    • Not a perfect circle. Oblate sphere. Pg 27
    • Equatorial Circumference 40,074 km
2 1 compositional zones of earth s interior
2.1 Compositional Zones of Earth’s Interior
  • Crust- the thin, solid, outermost zone of Earth.
    • Continental Crust- 15 to 80 km thick
    • Oceanic Crust- 5-10 km thick
  • Mantle- layer that underlies the crust.
    • Denser than the crust.
    • 2,900 km thick- makes up 2/3 of Earth’s mass
  • Core- The center of Earth
    • Sphere shaped
    • 3,500 km thick
    • Composed of Iron and Nickel
2 1 structural zones of earth s interior
2.1 Structural Zones of Earth’s Interior
  • Lithosphere- The solid, outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle. 15-300 km thick
  • Asthenosphere- The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it. 200-250 km thick.
  • Mesosphere- literally, the ‘middle sphere”’ the strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core.
  • Outer Core-Dense liquid underneath the Mesosphere 2,900 km down
  • Inner Core- Dense, rigid solid. Center of the Earth. 5,150 km down.
2 1 earth as a magnetic
2.1 Earth as a Magnetic
  • Earth has a North and South Pole
  • Pg 29 Figure 3 Earth’s magnetic field extends beyond the Earth’s Atmosphere and affects a region of space called the magnetosphere.
  • Source of Magnetic Field may be the liquid iron in Earth’s outer core. Motions within the core produce electric currents that in turn create Earth’s magnetic field.
  • Recent studies indicate that the sun and moon also have magnetic fields. Research in this field can help understand how we have our magnetic field.
2 1 earth s gravity
2.1 Earth’s Gravity
  • Gravity is the force of attraction that exists between all matter in the universe.
  • Newton’s Law of Gravitation states that, “the force of attraction between any two objects depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between the objects”
    • The larger and closer the objects are, the greater the force of gravity is.
2 2 energy in the earth system
2.2 Energy in the Earth system
  • System-An organized group of related object or components that interact to create a whole
    • They can be closed or open systems
2 2 energy in the earth system1
2.2 Energy in the Earth system
  • Matter vs Energy
  • Matter- Anything that has mass and takes up space.
    • Made of atoms and/or molecules
  • Energy-the ability to do work
    • Transforms into heat, light, vibrations, or waves
  • Both can be transferred (or moved) into a system or out of a system
2 1 systems
2.1 Systems
  • Closed System: A system in which energy, but not matter is exchanged with the surroundings
    • Pg 32 Closed Jar- Energy in the form of light and heat can be exchanged through the sides. Because the jar is closed no matter can be exchanged with a closed container.
  • Open System: A system in which both energy and matter can be exchanged with the surroundings.
    • Open Jar, lake,
  • Earth is considered a system-A closed system because matter exchange is limited.
first law of thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Law of Conservation of Matter:
    • States “Matter cannot be created or destroyed.”
    • It instead, transforms or changes.
      • Example: As a chemical breaks down from a reaction it releases energy in the form of heat.
earth s four systems
Earth’s Four Systems
  • The Atmosphere
    • 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1% other
  • The Hydrosphere
    • 71% of earth covered in water
    • Only 3% is fresh water
  • The Geosphere
    • Largest solid part of earth
  • The Biosphere
    • Composed of all the forms of life/organic matter
earth s energy budget
Earth’s Energy Budget
  • First Law of Thermodynamics
    • Conservation of energy and matter
  • Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • “When energy transfer takes place, matter becomes less organized with time”
    • Universe’s energy is spread out more and more uniformly over time
internal sources of energy
Internal Sources of Energy
  • Pg 35 “The Earth’s interior was headed by radioactive decay and gravitational contraction”
    • What does this mean?
  • The Idea of convection
    • Warm things rise…..why???
    • Why is it important….well this process drives the plate motions in the surface layers of the geosphere that create mountain ranges and ocean basins.
external energy sources
External Energy Sources
  • The Sun
    • Solar radiation warms Earth’s atmosphere and surface
    • Convection of air masses causes winds and ocean currents
  • Gravitational Energy
    • From moon and sun cause tides/currents
cycles of the earth system
Cycles of the Earth system
  • Nitrogen Cycle Pg 36
    • Builds protein that builds cells
  • Carbon Cycle Pg 37
    • Essential substances in the fuels used for life processes.
  • Phosphorus Cycle Pg 37
    • Part of some molecules that organism need to build cells
    • Phosphorus was discovered from extracting it from urine.
  • Water Cycle Pg 38
  • The study of the complex relationships between living things and their nonliving, or abiotic environment.
  • A community of organisms and the environment that the organisms inhabit is called an ecosystem.
    • As large as an ocean or as small as a rotting log.
    • Largest ecosystem is the biosphere
  • Energy flows through these ecosystems
    • producers, consumers, decomposers (food webs)
    • Any examples?
balancing forces in ecosystems
Balancing Forces in Ecosystems
  • Organisms in an ecosystem use matter and energy.
  • Amounts of matter and energy are limited
  • The largest population that an environment can support at any given time is called the carrying capacity.
energy transfer
Energy Transfer
  • Starts with the Sun and photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis captures energy that then flows through ecosystems from the plants, to the animals that feed on the plants, and finally to the decomposers of animals and plant remains.
  • Food Webs Pg 41
  • What is an Energy Pyramid? Let’s talk about efficiently of a food web.
create your own food web
Create your Own food web
  • Create your own food web using the different animals either in the movie “The Lion King”
  • How does the song “The Cycle of Life” related to this food web?