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Cancer Epidemiology. Dr Jesme Baird The Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation, UK and ECPC. Projected numbers of cancer cases and deaths from cancer in Europe. 2010 2020 Cases Deaths Cases Deaths M 1,652,283 1,090,198 1,859,910 1,241,860 F 1,405,617 803,250 1,504,990 880,531

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cancer epidemiology

Cancer Epidemiology

Dr Jesme Baird

The Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation, UK

and ECPC.

projected numbers of cancer cases and deaths from cancer in europe
Projected numbers of cancer cases and deaths from cancer in Europe

20102020

CasesDeathsCasesDeaths

M 1,652,2831,090,1981,859,9101,241,860

F 1,405,617803,2501,504,990880,531

B 3,057,9001,893,4483,364,900 2,122,391

Globocan 2002

cancer deaths attributed to various factors
Cancer deaths attributed to various factors

Percentage of all cancer deaths

Factor or class of factors

Range of acceptable

estimates

Best estimate

Tobacco 30 25 - 40

Alcohol 3 2 - 4

Diet 35 10 - 70

Food aditives <1 -5 - 2

Reproductive and sexual 7 1 - 13

behaviour

Occupation 4 2 - 8

Pollution 2 1 - 5

Industrial products <1 <1 - 5

Medicines and m. procedures 1 0.5 - 3

Geophysical factors 3 2 - 4

Infection 10? 1 - ?

Unknown ?

Doll and Peto 1981

cancer in europe males 2002
Cancer in Europe: males, 2002

Incidence (ASR)

Mortality (ASR)

Globocan 2002

slide9

Mortality (ASR)

Incidence (ASR)

Cancer in Europe: females, 2002

Globocan 2002

25 30 of all cancer sites in the developed world are causally linked to smoking

IARC 2002

25-30% of all cancer sites in the developed world are causally linked to smoking :
  • Lung (87-91% in males and 57-86% in females)
  • Oral cavity (including lip and tongue)
  • Nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
  • Larynx
  • Pharynx and oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Urinary tract (bladder, ureter and renal pelvis)
  • Uterine cervix
  • Myeloid leukaemia
diet overwight and physical activity

A poor diet, often combined with sedentary

lifestyle and obesity, increase the risk of

colon, breast, prostate, endometrial and other

cancers

Diet, overwight and physical activity
  • Up to 30% of cancers probably related to diet and

nutrition

World Cancer Report 2003

incidence of and mortality asr 2002 from breast cancer in selected european countries
Incidence of and mortality (ASR, 2002) from breast cancer in selected European countries

North-Western Europe

Central-Eastern Europe

Globocan 2002

risk factors associated with the development of breast cancer
Risk factors associated with the development of breast cancer
  • family history and genetic factors
  • previous history of breast cancer in one breast
  • fibrocystic disease (atypical hyperplasia)
  • ionizing radiation
  • age at menarche and menopause
  • age at first delivery, number of children
  • nulliparity
  • oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy
risk factors associated with the development of breast cancer1
Risk factors associated with the development of breast cancer
  • diet
  • alcohol
  • physical activity

Life-style related factors

incidence of and mortality asr 2002 from cervical cancer in selected european countries

North-Western Europe

Central-Eastern Europe

Globocan 2002

Incidence of and mortality (ASR, 2002) from cervical cancer in selected European countries
differences between nw and ce europe 1
Differences between NW and CE Europe (1)
  • Incidence of cancer in men is higher in NWEurope, but mortality is higher in CEEurope.
  • In females, incidence is higher in NWEurope, but mortality is similar in both regions.
  • Mortality in NWEurope has been decreasing since mid-1980s, it started to decline in CEEurope only recently.
differences between nw and ce europe 2
Differences between NW and CE Europe (2)
  • Differences in the common cancer sites
    • In CEEurope, the most important causes of cancer death
      • In Men - lung, stomach and colorectal cancer
      • In females - breast, stomach, colorectal and cervical cancer
mortality from cancer asr both sexes in three neighbouring countries in europe
Mortality from cancer (ASR, both sexes) in three neighbouring countries in Europe