The Division of the Christian Church. Section 2. Standard 7.1.3.
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The Division of the Christian Church Section 2
Standard 7.1.3 • Describe the establishment by Constantine of the new capital in Constantinople and the development of the Byzantine Empire, with an emphasis on the consequences of the development of two distinct European civilizations, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and their two distinct views on church-state relations.
Background Knowledge • By 380 Christianity had become the official religion of the Roman Empire. However, different groups held different religious beliefs. These disagreement would eventually split the Christian Church
Christian Organization • Bishops headed each local church • Aided by deacons and elders • Bishop eventually gain authority over all churches in one region • Apostolic succession
Church Organization • Patriarchs - the bishops of Rome, Jerusalem , Alexandria , Antioch and Constantinople • Largest and most important communities
Patriarchs and the Pope • Pope- father, or head, of the church • Patriarch of Rome claims authority over Christians • Based his claim on apostolic succession from the apostle Peter
The Nicene Creed • The nature of Jesus caused great debates • Emperor Constantine assembles a council to unify the church • 325, The Council of Nicaea established the beliefs of Christianity • The Creed is a summary of the entire Christian faith
The Controversy Over Icons • Icon – holy image, usually a portrait of Jesus or saint • Argument • Honor to God or Worship of an object
The Controversy Over Icons • Iconoclastic (image-breakers) • Destroyed icons • The Iconoclastic Controversy, a movement that denied the holiness of religious images, left a feeling of mistrust between the eastern and western churches
The Great Schism • In 1054, The development of two religious traditions eventually cased a split between the eastern and Western churches • Schism is Greek for split
Two Christian Traditions / The Final Split Pope Heads the Church Emperor Heads the Church Pope is the Highest Official Patriarch Of Constantinople Is the highest Official Orthodox following traditional or Established beliefs Roman Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox Church Roman Catholic Church Christianity Rituals and teaching were in Greek Rituals and teaching were in Latin Catholic universal, concerned with all people Priest could not marry Priest could marry