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Food security, sustainability and agriculture. KGA171 The Global Geography of Change Presented by Associate Professor Elaine Stratford Semester 1. YouTube Introduction. Part 1. Looking back, looking forward. Revising Lecture 5.1. What is the ecological footprint?

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food security sustainability and agriculture

Food security, sustainability and agriculture

KGA171 The Global Geography of Change

Presented by Associate Professor Elaine Stratford

Semester 1

revising lecture 5 1
Revising Lecture 5.1

What is the ecological footprint?

With reference to language explain why declining cultural diversity is an environmental problem.

Define sustainability. How does it differ from sustainable development?

Why are these terms contested? Is that contestation necessarily negative?

What are Jacobs’ four faultlines of contestation over sustainable development and how do they gain expression in conservative and radical forms?

How was sustainable development fully defined in Our Common Future by the World Commission on Environment and Development/Brundtland Commission? Why does this definition – more than the popular one – matter?

List and briefly explain the six principles of sustainability.

What is Agenda 21?

A Woman Thinking

learning objectives
Learning Objectives

Module 5 Lecture 2

KGA171

demonstrate knowledge of geographical concepts, earth and social systems and spatial patterns of change

create and interpret basic maps, graphs and field data

identify and analyse different viewpoints to contribute to debates about global development

communicate in reflective and academic writing, referencing literature when needed

  • be able to
    • explain the meaning, possible causes and spatial expressions of hunger and over-consumption of food
    • describe and elucidate the main features of the third agricultural revolution
    • comprehend the ways in which food security and modern agricultural practices are key considerations for sustainable development
textbook reading
Textbook Reading

Bergman and Renwick (2008) pp.312-51

Food and Agriculture Organization (2006)The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2006, FAO, Rome.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Success stories.

Critical reading

What is the author’s purpose?

What key questions or problems does the author raise?

What information, data and evidence does the author present?

What key concepts does the author use to organize this information, this evidence?

What key conclusions is the author coming to? Are those conclusions justified?

What are the author’s primary assumptions?

What viewpoints is the author writing from?

What are the implications of the author’s reasoning?

[from Foundation for Critical Thinking]

Old Woman Reading a Lectionary, Gerard Dou

agenda 21
Agenda 21

3. Combating poverty

4. Changing consumption patterns

14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development

32. Strengthening the role of farmers

what s at issue
What’s at issue?

Chronic hunger

Acute hunger

Starvation

Obesity

Food (in)security

Unsustainable development

geopolitics of deprivation
Geopolitics of deprivation

Poverty

Environmental degradation

Depletion of natural resources

Population growth

Loss of ownership or access to land

Marginal agricultural land

Cash cropping

Social conflict

Corruption

Agri-food markets

undernourishment
Undernourishment

Bergman and Renwick (2008) p.339.

agricultural labour force
Agricultural Labour Force

Bergman and Renwick (2008, p.494)

slide16

Food crises

FAO (2008)The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008,FAO, Rome, p.18.

an unequal world
An unequal world

Target

420m

FAO (2006) The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2006,FAO, Rome, p.5.

slide18

2005-2007 food prices rising, hunger increasing

number of undernourished people in 2007 923 million – up 75 million from 2005

FAO (2008)The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008,FAO, Rome, p.6.

geopolitics of excess
Geopolitics of excess?

Peak water

Peak oil

Price setting

World trade

Consumerism

Social conflict

slide22

Unprecedented production: grain

WorldWatch Institute (2007) Vital Signs 2007-08: The trends that are shaping our future, WW Norton, New York, p.21.

slide23

Unprecedented production: meat

WorldWatch Institute (2007) Vital Signs 2007-08: The trends that are shaping our future, WW Norton, New York, p.21.

slide24

Unprecedented production: fish

WorldWatch Institute (2007) Vital Signs 2007-08: The trends that are shaping our future, WW Norton, New York, p.21.

slide26

The geography of human history:

from local to global

Hunter-gatherers  Tribes  Chiefdoms  Empires  World-system

Local Regional Global

mini-systems world-empires world-system

1st 10,000-5,000 BP 2nd 1600-1900 3rd 1900 to present

Three

agricultural

revolutions

Spatial independence Spatial interdependence

global spatial integration of agriculture has concentrated control of the world s food in the core
Global spatial integration of agriculture has concentrated control of the world’s food in the core

See also Svalbard Seed Bank

the third agricultural revolution
The Third Agricultural Revolution

Robots packing bread onto palettes

slide30

Food in the modern world system:

inequality and agriculture

Bergman and Renwick (2008) p.327.

slide31

Food supply chain:

Five components and

mediating forces