The Industrial Revolution
Historical significance of the Industrial Revolution • An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life ws not much difernt-agriculture and tech ology were not much cha nged in 2000+ years • The Industrial Revolution changed human life drastically • More was created in the last 240+ years than in the previous 2500+ years of human history
Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First?
Industrial England: "Workshop of the World" That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte
Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure
Factory Production • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor]. • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor. • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.
Textiles: Why is this the first Industry in England? New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”
Coalfields & Industrial Centers Factories are relocated near raw materials, workers and ports
Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”
Expansion of world trade • Factory system • Mass production of goods • Industrial capitalism • Increased standard of living • Unemployment Economic Changes • Decline of landed aristocracy • Growth and expansion of democracy • Increased government involvement in society • Increased power of industrialized nations • Nationalism and imperialism stimulated Political Changes • Development and growth of cities • Improved status and earning power of women • Increase in leisure time • Population increases • Problems – economic insecurity, increased deadliness of war, urban slums, etc. • Science and research stimulated Social Changes
Communication and Transportation Revolution Steam Ship Steam Locomotive Modern Railway Age • the most important of which was the Liverpool and Manchester line of 1830 • ability to haul its train at over 30 miles per hour • set the standard for locomotive design • A railway boom and mania followed during the 1840s
Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851 Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.
The "Haves": Bourgeois Life Thrived on the Luxuries of the Industrial Revolution
The "Have-Nots": The Poor, The Over-Worked, & the Destitute
Problems of Pollution The Silent Highwayman - 1858