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The Industrial Revolution

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  1. The Industrial Revolution

  2. Historical significance of the Industrial Revolution • An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life ws not much difernt-agriculture and tech ology were not much cha nged in 2000+ years • The Industrial Revolution changed human life drastically • More was created in the last 240+ years than in the previous 2500+ years of human history

  3. Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First?

  4. Industrial England: "Workshop of the World" That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte

  5. The Enclosure Movement

  6. “Enclosed” Lands Today

  7. Metals, Woolens, & Canals

  8. Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure

  9. Factory Production • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor]. • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor. • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.

  10. The Factory System

  11. Textiles: Why is this the first Industry in England? New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution

  12. Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”

  13. John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”

  14. Jacquard’s Loom

  15. Textile FactoryWorkers in England

  16. The Power Loom

  17. Textile FactoryWorkers in England

  18. Coalfields & Industrial Centers Factories are relocated near raw materials, workers and ports

  19. Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914

  20. Young Coal Miners

  21. Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”

  22. British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812

  23. Young “Bobbin-Doffers”

  24. James Watt’s Steam Engine

  25. Results of the Industrial Revolution

  26. Expansion of world trade • Factory system • Mass production of goods • Industrial capitalism • Increased standard of living • Unemployment Economic Changes • Decline of landed aristocracy • Growth and expansion of democracy • Increased government involvement in society • Increased power of industrialized nations • Nationalism and imperialism stimulated Political Changes • Development and growth of cities • Improved status and earning power of women • Increase in leisure time • Population increases • Problems – economic insecurity, increased deadliness of war, urban slums, etc. • Science and research stimulated Social Changes

  27. Communication and Transportation Revolution Steam Ship Steam Locomotive Modern Railway Age • the most important of which was the Liverpool and Manchester line of 1830 • ability to haul its train at over 30 miles per hour • set the standard for locomotive design • A railway boom and mania followed during the 1840s

  28. Later Locomotives

  29. The Impact of the Railroad

  30. “The Great Land Serpent”

  31. Steam Tractor

  32. Communications Revolution

  33. British Pig Iron Production

  34. Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851 Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.

  35. Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits

  36. Crystal Palace:British Ingenuity on Display

  37. Crystal Palace:American Pavilion

  38. The "Haves": Bourgeois Life Thrived on the Luxuries of the Industrial Revolution

  39. 19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche

  40. Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie

  41. Stereotype of the Factory Owner

  42. “Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life

  43. The "Have-Nots": The Poor, The Over-Worked, & the Destitute

  44. Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830

  45. Industrial Staffordshire

  46. Problems of Pollution The Silent Highwayman - 1858

  47. The New Industrial City

  48. Early-19c Londonby Gustave Dore

  49. Worker Housing in Manchester