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A medical emergencyis an injury or illness that is acute and poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long term health. Dependent on the severity of the emergency, and the quality of any treatment given, it may require the involvement of multiple levels of care, from a first aider to an emergency physicianthrough to specialist surgeons.
Severe bleeding & fluid lossmay cause blood volume to fall & deprive vital organs (brain, heart & lungs) of oxygen
Age & diseasecan cause the body’s circulatory system to break down.
The circulatory system distributes blood round the body, so that O2 & nutrients can pass through & perfuse tissues.
There are 3 main types of shock: hypovolaemic, cardiogenic and vasogenic shock.
Rapid pulse, Sweating, small vessels in non vital areas ,as the skin, shut down to divert blood & O2 supply to vital organs (pale, cold & blue skin).
Weakness, Nausea & vomiting, Thirst, Rapid, Shallow Breath & Weak Pulse.
Restlessness, anxiety & aggressiveness, Air hunger, Undetectable pulse, Unconsciousness & finally Heart stops
Have the person lie down on his back with feet higher than the head(head down position)).
“This will force blood to go to the thorax, increasing venous return to the heart and hence increasing cardiac output”
This results from an interruption of the brain’s activity. Whatever the cause, follow these 3 rules:
“AVPU” code Alert, responds to Voice, responds to Pain, Unresponsive time.
Assessing level of response (GLASGOW COMA SCALE) eyes, movement, speech.
In grand mal epilepsy, the patient goes into tonic period of some 30 seconds or so when patient's musculature goes into spasm and the patient is unable to breath, this is followed by the clonic stage of convulsions which passes into a deep coma from which the patient gradually wakes up.
Diabetes:in hyperglycemic states, increased lipolysis leads to the formation of ketones whose effects on the brain lead to unconsciousness. In hypoglycemic states, the lack of blood glucose affects brain to produce drowsiness, confusion and unconsciousness.
Fainting occurs when the blood supply to your brain is momentarily inadequate, causing you to lose consciousness. This loss of consciousness is usually brief.
Unlike shock, the pulse becomes very slow, although it soon picks up & returns to normal. Recovery from faint is usually rapid & complete.
If you feel faint