BASIC COMPUTER CONCEPTS. Definition of Computer. Definition: A computer is a device that takes data in one form, uses it, and produces a different form of information which is related to (but may not be the same as) the original data.
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A computer is a device that takes data in one form, uses it, and produces a different form of information which is related to (but may not be the same as) the original data.
An electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate the data according to specified rules (process), produce information (output) from the processing, and store the results for future use.
Abacus - 3000 BC
Supercomputer a state-of-the-art, extremely powerful computer capable of manipulating massive amounts of data in a relatively short time. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation, among them meteorology, animated graphics, nuclear energy research and weapon simulation, and petroleum exploration.
2Main Frame Computers:
Used in large Companies
. 3 Mini Computers
A minicomputer is a class of multi-user computers that lies in the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers).
. 4 Micro Computers
A microcomputer is a computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit. They are also called “computer of a chip” because its entire circuitry is contained in one tiny chip. They are physically small compared to mainframe and minicomputers.
Control Unit/Arithmetic Logic Unit
Information Processing Cycle
Backing storage devices are where you can store data permanently. This means that data is held when the computer is switched off and can be loaded onto a computer system when required.
These devices are also known as secondary storage devices or auxiliary devices.
The software is the planned, step-by-step set of electronic instructions required to turn data into information that makes a computer useful.
As stated software, or program, consists of the instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task.
It is fall into two categories: -
1.System Software: -
System software enables the application software to interact with the computer and helps the computer manage its internal and external resources. System software is required to run application software. Buyers of new computers will find the system software has already been installed by the manufacture.
There are two basic types of system software such as: -
Operating system. (e.g. Windows, DOS, etc)
Utility programs: (e.g. Antivirus, file compression,etc)
2. Application Software:
Application software, also known as an application, is computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks. Examples include accounting software, office suites, graphics software, and media players.
The basic unit used in computer data storage is called a bit (binary digit). Computers use these little bits, which are composed of ones and zeros, to do things and talk to other computers. All your files, for instance, are kept in the computer as binary files and translated into words and pictures by the software (which is also ones and zeros).
ControlVon Neumann Architecture
Secondary Storage Device
Controlvon Neumann Architecture
Five Main Components:
2. Main Memory (RAM)
3. I/O Devices
4. Mass Storage
5. Interconnection network (Bus)
Execute InstructionThe Instruction Cycle - Basic View
Execute InstructionThe Instruction Cycle - Intermediate View
Execute InstructionThe Instruction Cycle - Exceptions