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The Social Inclusion Agenda in the Western Balkans and Turkey: key challenges. Dr. Paul Stubbs Senior Research Fellow The Institute of Economics, Zagreb [email protected] Consultation Workshop, Torino 12.12.11. A ‘Coat of Paint’ Theory of Social Exclusion.

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the social inclusion agenda in the western balkans and turkey key challenges

The Social Inclusion Agenda in the Western Balkans and Turkey: key challenges

Dr. Paul Stubbs

Senior Research Fellow

The Institute of Economics, Zagreb

[email protected]

Consultation Workshop, Torino 12.12.11

a coat of paint theory of social exclusion
A ‘Coat of Paint’ Theory of Social Exclusion

Following Paul Gilroy (1987) on racism:

  • “A coat of paint theory” of social exclusion sees it as an aberrant or surface feature of society, and therefore easily removed.
  • Seeing social exclusion as an integral part of the way contemporary societies are structured, organised and legitimated, offers a very different perspective.
  • Exploring the institutionalised nature of social exclusion requires understanding how it is embedded in social relations.
  • Bringing political agency back in addresses the relationship between social exclusion and clientelistic social relations.
  • The challenge is, therefore, to deal with the complex and diverse ways that diverse forms of social exclusion actually work.
a moral underclass discourse
A ‘Moral Underclass Discourse’

Ruth Levitas (1990) expressed concern about the rise of a Moral Underclass Discourse (MUD) at the expense of both a Social Integrationist Discourse (SID) and, in particular, a Redistributive Discourse (RED)

  • Social exclusion is caused by the moral attitudes and cultural practices of those who are excluded
  • Responses to social exclusion may promote dependency and reinforce a “cycle of poverty and deprivation”
  • Programmes for those capable to work should be conditioned in some way to ensure attitudinal and behavioural change
social inclusion agendas
Social Inclusion Agendas
  • Residual <-> Comprehesive
  • Fragmented <-> Co-ordinated
  • Punitive <-> Empowering
  • Ad Hoc <-> Evidence-based
  • Clientelistic <-> Needs-based
  • Discriminatory <-> Anti-discriminatory
  • Marginal <-> Central (Growth, Employment, Inclusion, ...)
europe 2020
Europe 2020

The best possibe strategy at the worst possible moment?

Positive: key quantifiable targets; flagship initiatives; net social progress; inclusive growth

Negative: OMC as ‘business as usual’; return to 1980s anti-poverty agenda; IMF-EU meta-critical partnerships; first wave of NRPs worse than Lisbon II

the myth of high social spending
The Myth of High Social Spending

Source: O’Mahony RCC 2011, For EU data EUROSTAT and for WB data IMF and EFPs/PEPs

a varied fiscal envelope
A Varied Fiscal Envelope

Source: O’Mahony RCC 2011

drivers of social exclusion
Drivers of Social Exclusion
  • Multiple shocks: War/conflicts; Structural transition; Deindustrialisation; Erosion of social capital/solidarities; ‘Captured’ social policies; Economic and Financial Crisis
  • Distortions caused by ‘locked in’ expenditures (tertiary health care; residential care) and new (informal) marketization
  • Legacy of category-based (not needs-based) social protection
  • Stigma, discrimination and over-professionalised approaches
  • Political will – Fiscal space – Technical capacities
groups at risk of exclusion
Groups ‘At Risk’ of Exclusion
  • Multi-dimensionality and inter-sectionality of exclusion (n.b. research and data gaps)
  • ‘At risk’: (Long-term) Unemployed; Older people; Large families; Women; Children; Youth; Low education levels; RDPs; Minorities (esp. Roma but also national minorities and ‘small minorities’); People with Disabilities; People with long-term health issues; Migrants/returnees/left behind
  • Danger of Generalisations – only (some) men aged 30-45 not excluded?
  • Spatial dimension: Arc of exclusion; Rural – Urban; Zones of exclusion
  • ‘New’ survival strategies eroding long-term capabilities?
emigration and rural urban migration
Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration
  • Inflexible (formal) labour markets
  • Mis-match of skills and supply-demand at local-national-regional levels
  • Loss of highly skilled workforce
  • Migration as deskilling and discrimination
  • Those ‘left behind’ in rural and disadvantaged areas
  • Forced return and vicious not virtual circles
local capacities for social inclusion
Local Capacities for Social Inclusion
  • National strategies rarely impact at local levels
  • Social dimension marginalised in regional and local development strategies
  • New Regional Social Planning highly technicised but lacks evidence-base
  • Significant gaps in funding, staffing, capacity
  • Employment and social assistance emphasised over personal social services
clientelism and social inclusion policies
Clientelism and Social Inclusion Policies
  • Benefits to groups in exchange for political support – governance, citizenship and (re)distribution
  • Southern Europe – South East Europe – Post-Communist (nb also Corporatist Central Europe)
  • Institutional particularism <-> Corruption
  • Employment opportunities
  • Ethnicised citizenship claims including Diaspora and cross-border claims-making
  • War veterans as privileged group: passive benefits; positive discrimination; vocal interest groups
  • Pensioners and minority political parties – categorical or particularistic interests
promoting social inclusion the state public sector
Promoting Social Inclusion: the state/public sector
  • The role of the state: public goods – bloated bureaucracy – clientelistic rent seeker?
  • Post-Yu countries – Centres for Social Work and Employment Bureaux
  • Governance – poor horizontal and vertical co-ordination
  • Regulation - over legalistic but with many gaps
  • Human resources - limited skills to meet ‘new’ social risks
  • Funding - low and inconsistent; little support for non-state actors/providers
  • Strategy – too many strategies; too little participation; no real M&E; too influenced by international organisations (nb JIM/JAP process)
promoting social inclusion the market
Promoting Social Inclusion: the market
  • Few incentives for private, for-profit providers (health, education, social services, ...)
  • Some development of Corporate Social Responsibility: move from from philanthropy to sustainable partnerships
  • Growth of market ideas within the public sector (new public management)
  • Informal marketization / commodification of public goods /privatization of public space
promoting social inclusion ngos
Promoting Social Inclusion: NGOs
  • Inverse care law – NGOs where they are needed least
  • Time-limited, donor-driven funding
  • Service provision at the expense of advocacy and empowerment?
  • Projectisation and endless pilot projects
  • ‘The new project class’ and ‘the rise of the meta-NGO’
  • Innovations are very rarely scaled up or rolled out
promoting social inclusion social entrepreneurship
Promoting Social Inclusion: social entrepreneurship
  • Lack of definition, understanding and legal framework
  • Donor-driven model with policy transfer (CEE -> SEE)
  • Implicit or explicit neo-liberal agenda
  • SE from below – green, gender, informal networks, etc
  • New social energy – disability advocacy coalitions
vet for social inclusion
VET for Social Inclusion
  • Empowering (guidance) or conditional (insertion)?
  • Linkages to labour force and skills planning
  • Evidence of impacts on long-term employability?
  • Cherry picking and creation of new middle class?
  • Short-term, project-based and reliant on intermediaries
  • Absence of research on social structure, social mobility, transition from school to work
  • Building on capacities and coping mechanisms
towards a renewed social inclusion agenda i
Towards A Renewed Social Inclusion Agenda I
  • Inclusive labour markets (disability; age; gender) and improved returns to education (life-long learning; skills; transitioning e.g school to work)
  • Holistic and integrated child and family policies (early childhood interventions; universal child benefits; family support services)
  • Deinstitutionalisation and minimum basket of community-based services
  • Social pensions within ‘active ageing’ policies
  • Anti-discrimination laws and practices
  • Area-based approaches/Action zones
towards a renewed social inclusion agenda ii
Towards A Renewed Social Inclusion Agenda II
  • Support for ‘evidence-based’ policy making – Strategic Goals; Benchmarks; Indicators; M&E; Impact Assessment (including all stakeholders)
  • Enhanced ‘social’ dimension of IPA programming
  • Regional cooperation (modelling OMC-JIM; Peer review/peer learning; common concerns; RCC as bridge to EU/global frameworks?)
  • Case for repoliticisation and social investment