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Identifying Trends in the field of ESL. By: Lina Engelhart,Sebastiaan Van den Bergh, Isabelle Roulet and Jeremiah Scalia. Introduction:. Common professional background (ESL). 4 Trends:. - Use of L1 in L2 (target language) instruction - An increase in non-native ESL teachers

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identifying trends in the field of esl

Identifying Trends in the field of ESL

By: Lina Engelhart,Sebastiaan Van den Bergh, Isabelle Roulet and Jeremiah Scalia

introduction
Introduction:
  • Common professional background (ESL)
  • 4 Trends:

- Use of L1 in L2 (target language) instruction

- An increase in non-native ESL teachers

- Vocabulary sets: shift in instruction

- Technology in the ESL classroom

trend 1 increase in l1 usage
Trend 1: Increase in L1 usage
  • Previous: Structure-based environment

- focus on language, not message

- focus on vocabulary and grammar rules

- frequent error correction

  • Trend: Content-based environment

- emphasis on interaction, conversation

- grammar used for clarifying meaning

krashen s theory on low affective filter
Krashen’s theory on Low Affective Filter:

High = students experience stress, anxiety, lack of self-confidence inhibiting success in L2 acquisition

Low = facilitates risk-taking behavior, enables learning of L2

trend 2 an increase in non native esl teachers
Experience

Communication

Concerns

Benefits

Teaching Culture

Trend 2: An increase in non-native ESL Teachers

Use of English

trend 3 trends in esl vocabulary teaching
Trend 3: Trends in ESL Vocabulary Teaching

“Language consists of grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar.” -Michael Lewis

Trending, Then and Now

  • General trend toward teaching vocabulary
  • Recent shift in methods of teaching vocabulary

SEMANTIC SETS– grouped according to category (e.g. furniture items, foods).

THEMATIC SETS – grouped under thematic concept (e.g. fishing, air travel).

UNRELATED SET - no semantic relation, nor are they expressly thematic in association. (frog, car, raining)

what the research says
What the research says:
  • 1993 Study (Tinkham) semantic sets had negative effect on vocabulary learning, thematic sets- neutral to positive.
  • 1997 Study (Waring) learners needed about 50% more time to learn semantically related words than unrelated words.
  • 2012 Study (Mirjalili, et al.) Subjects recalled more words from unrelated setsthan other sets.

- unrelated sets (7.30)

- thematic sets (7.06)

- semantic sets (5.90)

Interference Theory - Similarity between vocabulary words learned at the same time hinders retention.

slide10
Semantic Set: has flattened semantic relation

table shelf dresser couch

Unrelated Set: has dynamic/contrastive semantic relation

frog

car raining

exception that proves the rule
Exception that proves the rule:

Frylock, Master Shake and Meatwad

from left to right:

trend 4 technology language learning experience
Trend 4:Technology & Language Learning Experience

Technology redefines nature of language learning

Positive & negative experiences

Negative: Direct Translators!

technology language
Technology & Language

Txt Spk, Internet Language & Acronyms

Word Play

Slang

“If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you

talk to a man in his language, that goes to his heart” - Nelson Mandela

Make a sentence as short as possible!

conclusion
Conclusion

Student-centered

references
References:

Reference 1: Chapter 5 - Observing Learning and Teaching in the Second Language Classroom

Reference 2: http://teachingpronunciation.pbworks.com/f/When+the+teacher+is+a+non-native+speaker.PDF

Reference 3: http://eldstrategies.com/affectivefilter.html (Krashen)

Reference 4: Thomas Tinkham, Second Language Research 1997 13; 138