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GOVERNMENT PRESIDENTS

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GOVERNMENT PRESIDENTS. US GOVERNMENT BASED ON Magna Carta -signed in 1215, English document that guaranteed trial by jury and the King could not tax without Parliament’s ok English Bill of Rights-signed in 1689, English document guaranteed citizens certain rights

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Presentation Transcript
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GOVERNMENT

PRESIDENTS

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US GOVERNMENT BASED ON

Magna Carta-signed in 1215, English document that guaranteed trial by jury and the King could not tax without Parliament’s ok

English Bill of Rights-signed in 1689, English document guaranteed citizens certain rights

Baron de Montesquieu-writings influenced the formation of our 3 Branches of government

Significance-influenced today’s U.S. government

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DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

Adopted by 2nd Continental Congress on July 4, 1776

Written by Thomas Jefferson who was influenced by John Locke and William Blackstone-enlightenment writers believed that govt. protects individual freedoms

Declared colonies 9U.S.) independent of England

Described new form of government-democracy

Unalienable rights-rights govts. cannot take away from individuals-life, liberty, pursuit of happiness

Significance-described new theory of government, said why war/declared independence

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GOVERNMENT DESCRIBED IN DECLARATION

Purpose is to protect individual rights

Described new theory of government

People have right to overthrow government that oppresses them

Significance-framework for democracy in U.S.

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SHAYS REBELLION

Massachusetts farmers rebelled against high taxes

Led by Daniel Shays

Proved that Articles of Confederation was too weak

Significance-convinced leaders to write new plan of government

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ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

1st government from 1777-1787

States had most power

Weakness-could not tax, enforce laws or raise money

Strength-NW Ordinance to create new states from territories-entered Union equal to original states

Significance-kept states together until stronger government created

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CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION AND CONSTITUTION

1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Addressed grievances from Dec. of Independence

James Madison wrote most of it

Created 3 branches of government-Legislative makes laws, Executive enforces laws, Judicial interprets laws

Federalism-state and national share power, but national stronger

Significance-U.S. govt based on Federalism & democracy/ protects people’s rights

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GREAT COMPROMISE

Plan to organize Legislative branch

Proposed by Roger Sherman

2 house Legislature with upper house representation based on equality and lower house based on population of the state

Significance-organized legislative branch by compromise

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3/5’S COMPROMISE

Plan to count states’ slave population

Proposed by James Wilson

3/5 of states slave population and all free inhabitants count for taxation and representation

Significance-compromise used to settle and issue

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VIRGINIA PLAN

Plan to organize Legislative branch

Proposed by Edmund Randolph

2 house Legislature with representation based on population of the state

Significance-organized Legislative Branch to benefit large (population) states

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NEW JERSEY PLAN

Plan to organize Legislative branch

Proposed by William Paterson

1 house Legislature with representation based on equality

Significance-organized Legislative branch to benefit small (population) states

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RATIFICAITON OF CONSTITUTION

Ratify-approve

Federalists-ratify as is, Madison & Hamilton published Federalist Papers to encourage ratification

Anti-Federalists-change because no Bill of Rights to protect people’s freedoms

Significance-led to Bill of Rights to protect citizens rights

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BILL OF RIGHTS

1st 10 amendments to the Constitution

Added to get Constitution ratified

Protect people’s liberties that a govt cannot take away

Significance-written guarantee of rights that cannot be taken away by a govt

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PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTION

Federalism-state & national share power

Popular Sovereignty-power of people

Limited Govt-govt limited by Constitution

Separation of Powers-each branch has own powers

Checks and Balances-each branch checks other 2

Republicans-people elect representatives

Individual Rights-rights of individual

Significance-basis of our government

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CITIZENSHIP

Born or naturalized-live here at least 5 yrs, 18 yrs old, knowledge of U.S. govt and English language

Duty to vote, obey rules, serve on juries and stayed informed on issues

Significance-people benefit from democracy and freedom

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MAJOR AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

Amend-change

Difficult in order to avoid minor or frequent changes-2/3 of national legislature to propose and ¾ of state legislatures to approve

Amendment 1-free speech & press allows opinions with retaliation, free religion allows religion to grow

Amendment 13 abolished slavery

Amendment 14 citizenship to all males-could then vote

Amendment 15 male suffrage

Significance-allows govt to grow & change to meet needs of society

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GEORGE WASHINGTON

Commander of Continental Army

President of Constitutional Convention

1st President of U.S., made Constitution (govt) work

Encouraged Americans to avoid political parties & foreign alliances (trade only)-isolationism in Farewell Address

Leadership qualities-kept soldiers together during Rev, put aside personal beliefs

Significance-1st interpretation of Constitution (govt)

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WHISKEY REBELLION

Pennsylvania farmers did not want to pay taxes

Washington led army to force farmers to obey national policy

Significance-used force to enforce laws

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DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES

Developed to gain support for Constitution

Federalists-Hamilton-wanted loose construction of Constitution, strong Federal govt, pro trade & Britain

Democratic-Republicans-Thomas Jefferson-wanted strict construction of Constitution, strong State govt, pro agriculture & France

Significance-Federalism-state & national share power

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U.S. ECONOMIC POLICY

Developed by Alexander Hamilton-raise money thru taxes, pay debt to establish credit, money stored in Bank of U.S.

Capitalism-economic system of U.S.-people invest (put) capital (money) into business to make a profit

Free enterprise-people are free to produce, sell, buy, invest in what they want-little govt interference

Significance-economic policy of U.S./economy can grow because of little interference

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THOMAS JEFFERSON

3rd president of U.S.

Bought Louisiana Territory for $15 million in 1803-doubled size of U.S., sent Lewis and Clark to explore

Significance-describe new theory of govt in Declaration/interpreted Constitution in buying Louisiana

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JOHN MARSHALL

Supreme Court Chief Justice

Series of decisions that strengthened power of federal govt

Marbury v Madison established judicial review-authority of court to declare a law unconstitutional-principles of checks and balances

McCullough v Maryland established authority of Congress to create a national bank

Gibbons v Ogden established authority of Congress to regulate interstate trade

Significance-strengthened, defined, power & authority of Federal govt

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WAR OF 1812

Madison’s administration

U.S. vs Great Britain

Causes-impressment, Great Britain out of Ohio Valley, War Hawks wanted Canada

Ft. McHenry bombed, Francis Scott Key wrote Star Spangled Banner

Significance-Great Britain forced to recognize U.S./Andrew Jackson-national prominence/tariffs & blockade encouraged manufacturing

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MONROE DOCTRINE

Proposed by President James Monroe

No new European colonies in the America’s and America stay out of European affairs

Continued foreign policy of isolationism

Significance-foreign policy of U.S.

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JOHN QUINCY ADAMS

Defeated Andrew Jackson in the corrupt bargain

Negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain to gain Florida

Significance-gained Florida

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ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON

Interests of south and west represented

No longer had to own property to vote which allowed more free, white, 21 yr old, men to vote

Nicknames-Rise of Common Man and Jacksonian Democracy

Significance-extension of democracy-more people allowed to vote

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TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS

Tariff-tax on imports to protect & encourage manufacturing & provide a way for govt to raise money

Southerners-tariff protected northerners

John C. Calhoun believed tariffs were states’ rights issue-Congress could not regulate trade

Nullification Crisis-states could nullify (cancel) a law they disagreed with

Significance-created tensions that led to Civil War/Jackson would use force to enforce national policy

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INDIAN REMOVAL ACT

Cherokee Indians in Georgia resettled to Oklahoma-white settlers wanted land-cotton & gold, so Congress passed Indian Removal Act

Worcester v Georgia-decided by Supreme Court-state cannot regulate Indian lands, Andrew Jackson refused to enforce

Trail of Tears-forced move of Indians to Oklahoma

Significance-President refused to enforce Supreme Court decision/Indians confined to reservations

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