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Efficient and Effective Process for Completing FBA within a 3-tiered Continuum Teri Lewis LA-PBS Summer Institute Session 40
Purpose • To describe the critical features of functional behavioral assessment-based behavior intervention planning (FBA-BIP) process.
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
What is FBA? • A systematic problem solving process for developing statements about factors that: • Contribute to the occurrence and maintenance of problem behavior, and • More importantly, serve as basis for developing proactive & comprehensive behavior support plans.
Purpose of FBA • Increase efficiency, relevance, & effectiveness of behavior support interventions. • Improve consistency with which behavior support plans are implemented. • Increase accountability (legal & professional)
Use FBA when… • Students are not successful • Interventions need to be developed • Existing interventions need to made more effective and/or efficient
How do I know if I have done an FBA? • Description of problem behavior • Identification of conditions that predict when problem behavior will and will not occur • Identification of consequences that maintain problem behaviors (functions)
Summary statements or testable hypotheses that describe specific behavior, conditions, and reinforcers • Collection of direct observation data that support summary statements
FBA’s do not… • FBAs guide the development of BIP. They do not result in • Eligibility • Placement • Manifest determination • Can provide information that is useful for all of these of procedures
FBA Misrules • Only one way to collect FBA information, • FBA process is basically the same • Decisions about methods for collecting data may vary based on what information need to be collected
Must do everything every time. • Base FBA activities on what you know. • FBA is systematic behavior support planning process.
Everyone has to know how to do FBA. • Small # of people must have high fluency. • All people must know process & what to expect. • Some individuals must work on sustainability.
FBA is it. • One component of comprehensive plan of behavior support. • FBA is only for students with disability • Process for behavior of all individuals across multiple settings
Power, authority, control, intimidation, bullying, etc. are functionsTwo basic research validated functions • Positive reinforcement (get/access) • Negative reinforcement (avoid/escape)
WHAT ARE FBA STEPS? • Collect Information to determine function. • Develop testable hypothesis or summary statements and indicate functions. • Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement. • Identify desired and acceptable replacement behaviors. • Develop behavior intervention plan. • Develop comprehensive BIP to ensure high fidelity implementation. • Develop on-going monitoring system.
Step 1: Collect Information • Multiple sources • Student, parent, teacher, etc. • Multiple settings • Where it occurs & doesn’t occur • Strengths • Reinforcers, goals, hobbies, social skills, academic achievements, etc.
Step 1….continued • Multiple methods • Archival review • Office discipline referrals, behavior incident reports, etc. • Checklist/inventory • FACTS, routine analysis • Interview • Brief, student-guided, parent, teacher • Direct observation • O’Neill et al., ABC, scatter plot. Etc.
Aaron • Teacher interview, student interview, record reviewWhen Aaron sits next to preferred peers, he talks to them to gain peer attention.
Defining behavior • Must be in operational, observable, or measurable terms. • To achieve high agreement between two people.
Aaron • Aaron whispers to three different peers during class instruction and independent and group work time. He will both initiate the interaction and respond to peer initiations. He talks more in science and social studies. Sometimes he talks about class topic.
STEP 2. Develop summary statement. • Testable hypothesis (“objective guess”). • Write in observable terms. • If not confirmable, collect more information & restate. • Developed from review of assessment information. • Composed of (a) problem behavior, (b) triggering antecedent, (c) maintaining consequences, & (d) setting events.
Setting events • Factors that make problem behavior worse (more likely to occur, more intense) • E.g., illness, fatigue, social conflict, change in routine,…… • Factors that change value of current reinforcers • E.g., verbal praise less effective, peer attention more influential,escaping work more desirable….
Testable Hypothesis Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences
Testable Hypothesis Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences None Peer proximity Talks in class Gain peer attention
STEP 3. Collect direct observation data • Testable hypothesis • Multiple settings • Measures of • problem behavior • triggering antecedents, • maintaining consequences, & • setting events
STEP 4. Developing “competing pathways” • Components • Confirmed summary statements • Desired replacement behavior to be displayed in problem situation (behavioral objective) • Alternative replacement behavior that could achieve same outcome as problem behavior
Competing Behavior Pathway Desired Behavior Work quietly Existing Consequence Grades More work Setting event None Antecedent Preferred peer Problem Behavior Talking Maintaining Consequence Gain Peer attention Alternative Behavior Peer helper
Desired Behavior Let others host Some events Existing Consequence Less work Maintaining Consequence Control Setting event Job Stress Deadlines Antecedent Family event (e.g., holiday) Problem Behavior Host all events Do all cooking Alternative Behavior ?????
STEP 5. Develop behavior intervention plan. • Tactics for • discouraging problem behavior, • teaching & encouraging desirable & acceptable replacement behavior, • preventing & responding to emergency/crisis situations, & • monitoring implementation effectiveness • Emphasis on manipulation of (a) behaviors, (b) antecedents, (c) consequences, & (d) setting events
Guidelines • Design antecedent strategies to make triggering antecedents irrelevant. • So they no longer serve as triggers. • Design behavior teaching strategies to make problem behaviors inefficient. • So more acceptable behaviors are easier to do.
Guidelines • Design consequence strategies to make maintaining consequences ineffective. • So they no longer are present or • Are less reinforcing. • Design setting event strategies to eliminate or neutralize effects of setting events. • So they have less impact on routines & reinforcers.
Aaron Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Teaching Behaviors Maintaining Consequences • None Neutralize • Self-managementsheet • Choice of seating • Teacher precorrectionIrrelevant • Teach Aaron to:- self-assess-self-monitor-self-recruitInefficient • Praise/tokens for appropriate(self & peer) • Planned correction Ineffective
STEP 6. Develop details & routines for Implementation • Logistics • E.g., schedules, people, materials, training, monitoring • Scripts for adults to • Modify structural/routine/environment • “Neutralize” setting events • Manipulate antecedent & consequence events • Teach response/skills • Respond to emergency/crisis situations
STEP 7. Monitor & evaluate implementation. • Data • Impact on • student behavior, lifestyle outcomes • significant others • Fidelity of implementation
Consider contextual fit (Albin, Lucyshyn, Horner, & Flannery, 1996) • Characteristics of person for whom plan is designed. • Variables related to people who will implement plan. • Features of environments & systems within which plan will be implemented. (p. 82)
Aaron A B A C C A 1 0 0 I n t e r v e n t i o n B L F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s B L S e l f - m a n a g e m e n t B L 9 0 8 0 P r e f e r r e d P e e r 7 0 A l o n e N o n - P r e f e r r e d P e e r 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 3 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 7 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 2 3 4 3 6 3 7 3 9 4 1 4 3 Observations
Big Ideas • FBA-BIP is a process designed to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of individualized behavior support planning. • FBA-BIP is appropriate for all students and all types of problem behavior. • Intensity of FBA-BIP should match intensity of problem and needs of students.
Additional Resources • www.pbis.org • Technical assistance guide #1 • O’Neill et al (1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical handbook. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole
Complete Your Evaluations: Teri Lewis LA-PBS Summer Institute Session 40