contraction of skeletlal muscle sliding filament theory l.
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CONTRACTION OF SKELETLAL MUSCLE: SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY. PROPOSED BY: H.E. HUXLEY & J. HANSEN. Introduction. When a muscle cell contracts, the thin filaments slide past the thick filaments and the sarcomere shortens. Molecules Involved. 1. Myosin - thick protein filament

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Presentation Transcript
introduction
Introduction
  • When a muscle cell contracts, the thin filaments slide past the thick filaments and the sarcomere shortens
molecules involved
Molecules Involved

1. Myosin - thick protein filament

2. Actin - thin protein filament

3. Tropomyosin - covers binding sites on the actin to prevent cross bridges from forming when the muscle is not stimulated

molecules involved4
Molecules Involved

4. Troponin - exposes binding sites on the actin molecule during muscle stimulation

5. ATP - provides the energy needed for contraction

6. Calcium ions - enables actin and myosin to bind together to form cross bridges

sequence of events at a cross bridge cycle
Sequence of Events at a Cross Bridge Cycle
  • The influx of calcium triggers the exposure of binding sites on actin.

(troponin moves the tropomyosin out

of the way)

2. Myosin binds to actin to form a cross bridge.

sequence of events at a cross bridge cycle6
Sequence of Events at a Cross Bridge Cycle
  • The cross bridge produces a power stroke (flexion) that causes the sliding of the thin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere.

4. ATP binds to the myosin head, causing actin to disconnect from the cross bridge.

sequence of events at a cross bridge cycle7
Sequence of Events at a Cross Bridge Cycle

5. ATP is broken down and the energy released enables the cross bridge to be repositioned.

6. Calcium ions are transported back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the tropomyosin moves back to cover the actin binding sites.

sequence of events at a cross bridge cycle8
Sequence of Events at a Cross Bridge Cycle

*In contraction of a typical sarcomere, step 1 occurs then steps 2 - 5 are repeated over and over again before step 6 occurs. This allows the thin filaments to slide all the way inward. Steps 2 - 5 may repeat as long as both ATP and calcium ions are available. Multiple cross bridge cycling is coordinated sequentially to prevent cross bridges from being connected or disconnected at the same time.

summary requirements for muscle contraction
SUMMARY: REQUIREMENTS FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION
  • STIMULATION

-A nerve impulse stimulates the neuromuscular junction and acetylcholine is released, initiating an action potential which triggers the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum - the calcium ions enable actin and myosin to bind together via cross bridges by causing troponin to move tropomyosin out of the way.

summary requirements for muscle contraction10
SUMMARY: REQUIREMENTS FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION
  • ENERGY

-Potential energy stored in cross bridges is

converted to chemical energy (ATP)

summary requirements for muscle contraction11
SUMMARY: REQUIREMENTS FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION
  • CONTRACTION

-Energized by ATP, each cross bridge attaches and detaches several times during a contraction, acting much like tiny oars to generate tension and pull the thin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere. As this event occurs simultaneously in sarcomeres throughout the cell, the muscle cell shortens to about two thirds of its normal length.

summary requirements for muscle contraction12
SUMMARY: REQUIREMENTS FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION
  • RELAXATION

-When the action potential ends, calcium ions are immediately reabsorbed into the sarcoplasmic reticulum storage areas, actin and myosin filaments separate and the muscle cell relaxes and returns to its original length. This whole series of events takes just a few thousandths of a second.

summary requirements for muscle contraction13
SUMMARY: REQUIREMENTS FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION

*While the action potential is occurring, the acetylcholine, which started the process, is broken down by enzymes present in the sarcolemma. In this way, a single nerve impulse produces only one contraction, preventing the continued contraction of a muscle cell in the absence of additional nerve impulses*

animation
Animation

Sliding Filament Animation