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Chapter 11: Robber Barons and Rebels. Pegah Fakhar CH S 245-14004 Dr. Gabriel Buelna. Steam and electricity replaced human muscle Iron replaced wood Steel replaced iron The first transcontinental railroad was built. Industrial Revolution After the Civil War.

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chapter 11 robber barons and rebels

Chapter 11:Robber Barons and Rebels


CH S 245-14004

Dr. Gabriel Buelna

industrial revolution after the civil war

Steam and electricity replaced human muscle

  • Iron replaced wood
  • Steel replaced iron
  • The first transcontinental railroad was built
Industrial Revolution After the Civil War
the importance of the industrial revolution on society

“Between the Civil War and 1900, steam and electricity replaced human muscle, iron replaced wood, and steel replaced iron. Machines could now drive steel tools. Oil could lubricate machines and light homes, streets, factories. People and goods could move by railroad, propelled by steam along steel rails; by 1900 there were 193,000 miles of railroad. The telephone, the typewriter, and the adding machine speeded up the work of business.” (Zinn 173)

The Importance of The Industrial Revolution On Society
population shifts during the industrial revolution

Immigrants would come from Europe and China to make the new labor force.

  • Population grew in major cities as the farmers started migrating.

“ Farmers unable to buy the new machinery or pay the new railroad rates would move to the cities. Between 1860 and 1914, New York grew from 850,000 to 4 million, Chicago from 110,000 to 2 million, Philadelphia from 650,000 to 1 1/2 million.” (Zinn 173)

Population Shifts During The Industrial Revolution
banks control of the railways

By the 1890s, most of the country`s railway mileage was concentrated in 6 huge systems.

  • 4 of these were controlled by the House of Morgan.
  • 2 of them were controlled by the bankers Kuhn, Loeb, and Company.

“ The wild fraud on the railroads led to more control of railroad finances by bankers, who wanted more stability profit by law rather than by theft.” (Zinn 174)

Banks `control of the Railways
economic monopoly system

The monopolization of industries raised many wealthy business people.

John D. Rockefeller

Andrew Carnegie

economic monopoly system

J.P. Morgan

j p morgan

Headed J.P. Morgan and Company.

  • Financed railroads and helped organize U.S. Steel, General Electric and other major corporations
  • Bought defective rifles for $3.50 each from an army arsenal, and sold them to a general in the field for $22 each
  • making $18 million profit by giving government gold in exchange for bonds
  • A powerful banker during the Industrial Revolution
J.P. Morgan
john d rockefeller

Bought his first oil refinery in 1862

  • By 1870, set up Standard Oil Company of Ohio
  • Made secret agreements with railroads to ship his oil with them if they gave him discounts, and thus drove competitors out of business.
John D. Rockefeller
andrew carnegie

“ Andrew Carnegie was a telegraph clerk at seventeen, then secretary to the head of the Pennsylvania Railroad, then broker in Wall Street selling railroad bonds for huge commissions, and was soon a millionaire. He went to London in 1872, saw the new Bessemer method of producing steel, and returned to the United States to build a million-dollar steel plant. Foreign competition was kept out by a high tariff conveniently set by Congress, and by 1880 Carnegie was producing 10,000 tons of steel a month, making $1 1/2 million a year in profit. By 1900 he was making $40 million a year, and that year, at a dinner party, he agreed to sell his steel company to J. P. Morgan. He scribbled the price on a note: $492,000,000.” (Zinn 176)

Andrew Carnegie
economic crisis of 1893

The biggest economic crisis in the country`s history.

  • 642 banks failed, and 16,000 businesses closed
  • Unemployment reached 20% or higher
  • Sherman Anti Trust act prevented monopolistic business practices, and called for congress not to regulate big business
Economic Crisis of 1893
economic crisis of 18931

“ After several decades of wild industrial growth, financial manipulation, uncontrolled speculation and profiteering, it all collapsed. No state government voted relief, but mass demonstrations all over the country forced city governments to set up soup kitchens and give people work on streets or parks.” (Zinn 189)

Economic Crisis of 1893
populist party

Populist Party Formed by farmers in the South and Midwest.

  • Against the Democratic and Republican Parties for ignoring their interests and difficulties
  • Farmers were suffering from crop failures, falling prices, and poor marketing.
  • In 1896, the Populists fused into the Democratic Party.
Populist party
national farmers alliance

Began in Texas, and spread through out different states

  • Farmers unified to help each other
  • Formed to protect the farmers from capitalistic and industrial powers of monopolies
National Farmers' Alliance

“ It was a time to consolidate the system after years of protest and rebellion…. The black was being kept under control in the South. The Indian was being driven off the western plains for good; on a cold winter day in 1890, U.S. army soldiers attacked Indians camped at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, and killed three hundred men, women, and children. It was the climax to four hundred years of violence that began with Columbus, establishing that this continent belonged to white men. But only to certain white men, because it was clear by 1896 that the state stood ready to crush labor strikes, by the law if possible, by force if necessary. “

works cited

Zinn, Howard. A People`s History of the United States 1492-present. New York: Harper Perennial, 2005.

Works Cited