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T EN S TEPS TO A DVANCED R EADING. John Langan. © 2009 Townsend Press. • Authors use two common methods to show relationships and make their ideas clear. • These two methods are transitions and patterns of organization . Chapter Four: Relationships I. RELATIONSHIPS.

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t en s teps to a dvanced r eading

TENSTEPSTO ADVANCED READING

John Langan

© 2009 Townsend Press

chapter four relationships i

•Authors use two common methods to show relationships and make their ideas clear.

•These two methods are transitions and patterns of organization.

Chapter Four: Relationships I

slide3

RELATIONSHIPS

Two common types of relationships are

• Relationships that involve addition

• Relationships that involve time

slide4

TRANSITIONS

Which item below is easier to read and understand?

A.Most people choose a partner who is about as attractive as themselves. Personality and intelligence affect their choice.

B.Most people choose a partner who is about as attractive as themselves. Moreover, personality and intelligence affect their choice.

slide5

TRANSITIONS

Which item below is easier to read and understand?

A.Most people choose a partner who is about as attractive as themselves. Personality and intelligence affect their choice.

B. Most people choose a partner who is about as attractive as themselves. Moreover, personality and intelligence affect their choice.

Explanation

The word moreover in the second item makes it clear that the writer is presenting several factors in choosing a romantic partner. This makes the second item easier to understand.

slide6

TRANSITIONS

Transitions are words or phrases (like moreover) that show relationships between ideas.

slide7

TRANSITIONS

Transitions can be seen as “bridge” words, carrying the reader across from one idea to the next:

slide8

TRANSITIONS

Two major types of transitions are words that show addition and words that show time.

slide9

TRANSITIONS

Words That Show Addition

Which item below is easier to read and understand?

A. There are several reasons not to fill babies’ bottles with sugary juice. It can rot their teeth.

B.There are several reasons not to fill babies’ bottles with sugary juice. First of all, it can rot their teeth.

slide10

TRANSITIONS

Words That Show Addition

Which item below is easier to read and understand?

A. There are several reasons not to fill babies’ bottles with sugary juice. It can rot their teeth.

B. There are several reasons not to fill babies’ bottles with sugary juice. First of all, it can rot their teeth.

Explanation

In the second item, the words first of all make it clear that the writer plans on giving a series of reasons why babies should not be fed sugary water. First of all is an addition word.

slide11

TRANSITIONS

Words That Show Addition

Addition words signal added ideas. These words tell you a writer is presenting one or more ideas that continue along the same line of thoughtas a previous idea.

Here are some common addition words:

Addition Words

one to begin with also further

first (of all) for one thing in addition furthermore

second(ly) other next last (of all)

third(ly) another moreover final(ly)

slide12

TRANSITIONS

Words That Show Addition

In the examples below, notice how the addition words

introduce ideas that add to what has already been said.

•Depression can be eased through therapy and medication. Physical exercise has also been shown to help.

•Bananas are the most frequently purchased fruit in the U.S. Why are bananas so popular? To begin with, they are convenient to carry around and to eat.

slide13

TRANSITIONS

Words That Show Time

Which item below is easier to read and understand?

A. The dog begins to tremble and hide under the couch. A thunderstorm approaches.

B.The dog begins to tremble and hide under the couch when a thunderstorm approaches.

slide14

TRANSITIONS

Words That Show Time

Which item below is easier to read and understand?

A. The dog begins to tremble and hide under the couch. A thunderstorm approaches.

B. The dog begins to tremble and hide under the couch when a thunderstorm approaches.

Explanation

The word when in the second item clarifies the relationship between the sentences. It is at the time a thunderstorm approaches that the dog’s behavior changes. When and words like it are time words.

slide15

TRANSITIONS

Words That Show Time

Time words tell us at what point something happened in relation to when something else happened. Here are some common time words:

Time Words

before immediately when until

previously next whenever often

first (of all) then while frequently

second(ly) following during eventually

third(ly) later as (soon as) final(ly)

now after by last (of all)

Note:Some additional ways of showing time are dates (“In 1890…”; “Throughout the 20th century…”; “By 2012…”) and other time references (“Within a week…”; “by the end of the month…”; “in two years…”).

slide16

TRANSITIONS

Words That Show Time

In the examples below, notice how the time words show us when something takes place.

•The old woman on the park bench opened a paper bag, and a flock of pigeons immediately landed all around her.

•In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina caused tremendous devastation in New Orleans.

slide17

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

Just as transitions show relationships between ideas in sentences, patterns of organization show the relationships between supporting details in paragraphs, essays, and chapters.

slide18

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

Two major patterns of organization are

•The list of items pattern

(Addition words are often used in this pattern of organization.)

•The time order pattern

(Time words are often used in this pattern of organization.)

slide19

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The List of Items Pattern

List of items

Item 1

Item 2

Item 3

• Alist of items is a series of reasons, examples, facts, or other details that support an idea.

•The items have no time order, but are listed in whatever order the author prefers.

slide20

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The List of Items Pattern

See if you can arrange the following sentences in an order that makes sense. Which sentence should come first? Second? Third? Last? Use the addition words to guide you.

A.Next is moderate poverty, defined as living on $1 to $2 a day, which refers to conditions at which basic needs are met, but just barely.

B.Nearly half of the six billion people in the world experience one of three degrees of poverty.

C.Last, relative poverty, defined by household income level below a given portion of the national average, means lacking things that the middle class now takes for granted.

D.First is extreme poverty, defined by the World Bank as getting by on an income of less than $1 a day, which means that households cannot meet such basic needs for survival as food, clothing, and shelter.

slide21

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The List of Items Pattern

Nearly half of the six billion people in the world experience one of three degrees of poverty.First is extreme poverty, defined by the World Bank as getting by on an income of less than $1 a day, which means that households cannot meet such basic needs for survival as food, clothing, and shelter. Next is moderate poverty, defined as living on $1 to $2 a day, which refers to conditions at which basic needs are met, but just barely. Last, relative poverty, defined by household income level below a given portion of the national average, means lacking things that the middle class now takes for granted.

Explanation

The paragraph begins with the main idea: “Nearly half of the six billion people in the world experience one of three degrees of poverty.” The next three sentences list the three degrees of poverty. Each one is introduced with an addition transition.

slide22

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The List of Items Pattern

What information is needed to complete the outline of this paragraph? The addition words are shown in blue to help you.

Because women were not allowed to act in English plays during Shakespeare’s time, young male actors pretended to be women. Acting companies had to work hard to make boys sound and look like women. To begin with, they chose teenage boys who had not reached puberty. They found boy actors who had high-pitched voices and didn’t need to shave. Next, they dressed the boys in women’s clothing. An upper cloth called a bodice was tightened with string so that the boys looked as if they had feminine waists. The boys wore dresses and high-heeled shoes that matched their characters. A long-haired wig completed the costumes. Finally, they added makeup. A white paste made the boys look pale, and red blush gave them rosy lips and cheeks. The boy actors would step on stage looking like ladies.

Main idea:Shakespearian acting companies had to work hard to _______________________________.

1.

2.

3.

slide23

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The List of Items Pattern

Addition words lead you to the major details the author has listed.

Because women were not allowed to act in English plays during Shakespeare’s time, young male actors pretended to be women. Acting companies had to work hard to make boys sound and look like women. To begin with, they chose teenage boys who had not reached puberty. They found boy actors who had high-pitched voices and didn’t need to shave. Next, they dressed the boys in women’s clothing. An upper cloth called a bodice was tightened with string so that the boys looked as if they had feminine waists. The boys wore dresses and high-heeled shoes that matched their characters. A long-haired wig completed the costumes. Finally, they added makeup. A white paste made the boys look pale, and red blush gave them rosy lips and cheeks. The boy actors would step on stage looking like ladies.

Main idea:Shakespearian acting companies had to work hard to make boys look and sound like women.

1.Chose boys who had not yet reached puberty

2.Dressed boys in women’s clothing

3. Added makeup

slide24

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The Time Order Pattern

See if you can arrange the following sentences in logical order. Which sentence should come first? Second? Third? Last? Use the time words as a guide.

A.Then, in 1638, a press in Cambridge, Massachusetts printed a book of psalms that became an instant bestseller.

B. The first books in the United States were imports, brought by new settlers.

C. Eventually, in 1731, Benjamin Franklin asked fifty subscribers to help him start America’s first circulating library.

D.During the years that followed, booksellers emerged in the Boston area, and by 1685 the leading bookseller offered over three thousand books.

slide25

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The Time Order Pattern

Here is the logical order for the sentences on the last screen.

The first books in the United States were imports, brought by new settlers. Then, in 1638, a press in Cambridge, Massachusetts printed a book of psalms that became an instant bestseller. During the years that followed, booksellers emerged in the Boston area, and by1685 the leading bookseller offered over three thousand books. Eventually, in 1731, Benjamin Franklin asked fifty subscribers to help him start America’s first circulating library.

Explanation

The details are presented in the order in which they happen. The resulting pattern of organization is known as time order. Notice that supporting details are introduced by time words.

slide26

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The Time Order Pattern

Two of the most common kinds of time order are

1. a series of events or stages

2. a series of steps (directions for doing something)

Time Order: Events

Time Order: Steps

Event 1

Event 2

Event 3

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

slide27

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The Time Order Pattern: Series of Events or Stages

What three stages are needed to complete the outline of this paragraph?

People who move into affordable city neighborhoods may not realize it, but they are often part of a process that ends in the change of a community. The first stage of this “gentrification” process begins when young artists move into a low-income working-class neighborhood. These artists are often attracted by the low rents and the proximity to the urban centers where they can’t afford to live. In the next stage, young professionals follow the artists into the neighborhood. They are often attracted to the trendy restaurants, galleries, and nightclubs that open in neighborhoods popular with artists. The final stage of the gentrification process occurs when upper-class families take over the neighborhood. The end result is a neighborhood where the rising rents are too costly for the artists who started the process of gentrification to begin with. The artists, therefore, are forced to move on to another working-class neighborhood, where they will start this process over again.

Main idea: The process of gentrification can transform a community.

1.

2.

3.

4. The artists are forced to move on to another working-class neighborhood, and the process begins all over again.

slide28

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The Time Order Pattern: Series of Events or Stages

Time words lead you to the major details the author has listed.

People who move into affordable city neighborhoods may not realize it, but they are often part of a process that ends in the change of a community. The first stage of this “gentrification” process begins when young artists move into a low-income working-class neighborhood. These artists are often attracted by the low rents and the proximity to the urban centers where they can’t afford to live. In the next stage, young professionals follow the artists into the neighborhood. They are often attracted to the trendy restaurants, galleries, and nightclubs that open in neighborhoods popular with artists. The final stage of the gentrification process occurs when upper-class families take over the neighborhood. The end result is a neighborhood where the rising rents are too costly for the artists who started the process of gentrification to begin with. The artists, therefore, are forced to move on to another working-class neighborhood, where they will start this process over again.

Main idea: The process of gentrification can transform a community.

1.Young artists move into a low-income working-class neighborhood.

2.Young professionals follow the artists into the neighborhood.

3. Upper-class families take over the neighborhood.

4. The artists are forced to move on to another working-class neighborhood, and the process begins all over again.

slide29

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The Time Order Pattern: Series of Steps (Directions)

What steps are needed to complete the outline of this paragraph?

It’s important to take time to reflect upon your goals in life. To begin with, take out a sheet of paper and label it “My Lifetime Goals.” Imagine that you are very old, looking back at your life. What did you want to accomplish? What do you feel best about? Write down anything that pops into your mind. Next, take a second sheet of paper and write “My Three-Year Goals.” On this, write what you would like to accomplish within thenext three years. Third, take a sheet of paper and title it “What I Would Do If I Knew I Had Six Months to Live.” Assume that you would be in good health and have the necessary resources, and list everything you might like to squeeze into those six months. Now go back over all three lists, and rate each item as A (very important), B (somewhat important), or C (least important.) Finally, evaluate the “A” items on your lists and select the goals that are most important to you.

Main idea: It’s important to take time to reflect upon your goals in life.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

slide30

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

The Time Order Pattern: Series of Steps (Directions)

Time words lead you to the major details the author has listed.

It’s important to take time to reflect upon your goals in life. To begin with, take out a sheet of paper and label it “My Lifetime Goals.” Imagine that you are very old, looking back at your life. What did you want to accomplish? What do you feel best about? Write down anything that pops into your mind. Next, take a second sheet of paper and write “My Three-Year Goals.” On this, write what you would like to accomplish within thenext three years. Third, take a sheet of paper and title it “What I Would Do If I Knew I Had Six Months to Live.” Assume that you would be in good health and have the necessary resources, and list everything you might like to squeeze into those six months. Now go back over all three lists, and rate each item as A (very important), B (somewhat important), or C (least important.)Finally, evaluate the “A” items on your lists and select the goals that are most important to you.

Main idea: It’s important to take time to reflect upon your goals in life.

1.Take out a sheet of paper and write down “My Lifetime Goals.”

2.Take a second sheet of paper and write down “My Three-Year Goals.”

3. Take out a third sheet and list “What I Would Do If I Knew I Had Six Months to Live.”

4. On the three lists, rate each item as A, B, or C.

5. Evaluate the “A” items and select the goals that are most important to you.

slide31

PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

A Note on Main Ideas and Patterns of Organization

A paragraph’s main idea may indicate its pattern of organization.

•This sentence suggests that a list of items will follow:

Nearly half of the six billion people in the world experience one of three degrees of poverty.

• This sentence suggests that the paragraph that follows will have a time order:

People who move into affordable city neighborhoods may not realize it, but they are often part of a process that ends in the change of a community.

slide32

CHAPTER REVIEW

In this chapter, you learned how authors use transitions and patterns of organization to make their ideas clear. Just as transitions show relationships between ideas in sentences, patterns of organization show relationships

between supporting details in paragraphs and longer pieces of writing.

You also learned two common kinds of relationships that authors use to make their ideas clear:

•Addition relationships

— Authors often present a list or series of reasons, examples, or other details that support an idea. The items have no time order, but are listed in whatever order the author prefers.

— Transition words and phrases that signal such addition relationships include for one thing, second, also, in addition,

and finally.

•Time relationships

— Authors usually discuss a series of events or steps in the order in which they happen, resulting in a time order.

— Transition words that signal such time relationships include first, next, then, after, and last.

The next chapter—Chapter 5—will help you learn three other important kinds of relationships: definition-example, comparison and/or contrast, and cause-effect.