Navigating the Brain. Mark P. Wachowiak, Ph.D. Department of Computer Science and Mathematics Nipissing University April 27, 2007. Outline. Basic brain anatomy Brain imaging Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Computed tomography (CT) Functional imaging Brain navigation Future directions.
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Mark P. Wachowiak, Ph.D.
Department of Computer Science and Mathematics
April 27, 2007
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Andrew Fielding Huxley
Hydrogen protons precess about an axis, like a “wobbling” spinning top.
Randomly-oriented hydrogen protons precess.
A strong magnetic field is applied in a specified direction.
The protons align with the magnetic field.
A strong, sudden RF (radiofrequency) pulse is applied in a direction orthogonal to the magnetic field.
Protons are briefly placed into a high-energy state.
Energy is released as the protons return to their low-energy orietation within the magnetic field.
Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier
James W. Cooley
John W. Tukey
Magnitude information from signal
Phase information from signal
Active areas while subjects remembered information presented visually
Active areas while subjects remembered information presented aurally
Active areas for both types
Automatically computed network of 3D curves lying deep in the cortex (sulcal fundi), color-coded according to the curvature.
G. Sapiro, SIAM News, Volume 40, Number 2, March 2007
MRI + Ultrasound
Segmentation of the brain surface from MRI scans
Registration of fMRI onto segmented brain surface to display activation areas
3D models generated from MRI and CT images.
MRI and fMRI registration, and the 3D reconstruction of a tumour.
Tumour segmentation is carried out prior to the surgery.
Neurosurgeons now have complex information available to decide the best strategy for removing the tumour.