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Corn Co-Products in Beef Cow Rations

Corn Co-Products in Beef Cow Rations

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Corn Co-Products in Beef Cow Rations

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  1. Corn Co-Products in Beef Cow Rations John D. Lawrence, Iowa State University Darrell Mark, University of Nebraska

  2. Types of Corn Co-Products • Corn gluten feed: wet mill • Corn bran + steep • Can be wet or dry • Moderate crude protein, CP = 16-23% • 80% of CP is DIP (ruminally degradable) • Low fat, moderate fiber, TDN = 80 • 101-115% of energy value of dry-rolled corn • Product variation is significant within and across plants due to amount of steep added back to the corn bran

  3. Types of Corn Co-Products • Distillers Grains + Solubles: dry mill • Distillers Grains (65%) & Solubles (35%) (DM basis) • May be wet or dried • Higher crude protein, CP = 30% • 65% UIP (undegraded, “bypass”, protein • High fat (11%), TDN = 70-110 • Concentrates nutrients 3-fold from corn • 0.8% P, 0.35-1.0% Sulfur (variable)

  4. Types of Corn Co-Products • Condensed distillers soluables: dry mill • Also known as “syrup” • 35% dry matter but in liquid form • Higher crude protein, CP = 26% • High fat, low fiber, TDN = 110-115 • Modified DGS are available • (35-65% DM) • Hybrid wet & dry plant combining corn bran and distillers solubles  bran cake • Example: Dakota Bran Cake

  5. Nutrient Composition of Selected Corn Milling Co-Products

  6. Research in Co-Product Supplementation For Cattle on Forage • If properly balanced there appears to be benefit using CGF or DGS to supplement cattle on forage diets • Little starch in CGF, so no negative effect on fiber digestion • Protein in forage highly degraded in rumen, so may need UIP supplementation • DGS is a good choice • Cattle on forage may need additional energy • DGS can provide this energy, along with the protein and phosphorous • One supplement reduces costs

  7. SBM & DDGS Supplement With Same Feeding Value

  8. Limited Research in Co-Product Supplementation For Cows on Forage • Nebraska: DGS based supplement on winter range • Illinois: CGF and DGS similar to each other when supplementing corn stalks • Illinois: DGS had similar performance as corn-soybean meal for cows fed corn silage based diets

  9. Feeding Levels • To meet protein and energy requirements for average cows in good condition fed as a supplement to corn stalks: • Last 1/3 of gestation, 3-5 lb. of DDS or 8-15 lb. of WDG per day • Early lactation, 6-8 lb. of DDG or 20-23 lb. of WDG per day • Fine-tune for the specific cow size, stage of production, condition score and weight gain

  10. Dried Distillers Grains Fed with Corn Stalks to Meet Protein & Energy Needs of Beef Cows by Month 9 8 7 6 5 Pounds per day 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Months After Calving

  11. Methods of Feeding • CGF and DGS • Wet or dry product • Total Mix Ration with forage • Limit feed to grazing animals daily or every other day • CDS • Free choice in open tanks or lick tanks like molasses on pasture and corn stalks • Mixed with forage at feeding or at storage

  12. Developing Heifers • Control • Winter grazing & hay & protein supplement • Treatment • Winter grazing & WCGF supplement Treatment saved $6.71 in costs

  13. Stalk Grazing

  14. DDG Supplement to Steers On Drought Stressed Pasture Whole systems analysis finds better performance through grazing and feedyard

  15. DDGS on Brome Pasture Control Fert DDGS Grass ADG 1.37 1.37 1.95 Weight a 977 977 1065 Feedlot ADG 3.40 3.40 3.70 Weight 1368 1368 1491 aInitial wt = 767

  16. Price of Corn and Pasture

  17. Price of DDG and Pasture

  18. Challenges • Dry product is more costly, but stores well • Storing wet DGS product • Material exposed to air spoils in 7-14 days depending on temperature • Cowherds do not use fast enough for large loads • Has low pH and does not ensile but will keep in air-tight storage for long periods • Spoilage loss stored in silage bags (Walker et al) • 20% loss opened and fed day 78-112 post-sealing • 28% loss opened and fed day 190-257 post sealing

  19. Challenges • Storing wet DGS product • Often delivered in truck load lots • Can store wet DGS in bunker, silage bag or in pile covered with plastic to protect from air • Mix with tub-ground forage and stored in bunker or bag • Storing CDS • 70% water, protect from freezing • Can mix with tub-ground forage and stored in bunker or bag

  20. Storage Could Allow Cattle Producers To Buy Seasonal Price Lows Seasonal Index of Dried Distillers Grains, Nebraska, 2003-2005 160.00 Seasonal Price Index Seasonal Price Index + 1 Std Dev 140.00 Seasonal Price Index - 1 Std Dev 120.00 Price Index (% of Annual Average) 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 Apr Oct Jan Feb Mar Jun Sep Nov Dec May Aug July Source: AMS & University of Nebraska-Lincoln

  21. Minimum Levels of Roughage To Mix in WDGS For Storage Bagginga Bunker Grass hay 15% 30-40 Wheat straw 12.5 25-32 Alfalfa hay 22.5 45-55? DDGS 50 --- ADMCGF 60 --- a300 PSI. Source: Erickson & Klopfenstein

  22. Opportunities • Often low-cost high protein and energy feed • Particularly wet product near plant • Complements low quality forage • Winter feeding programs grazing crop residue • Feeding mature, poor quality grass hay • Drought stressed pastures • Extend summer pastures to carry more cattle on the same acres • Adding fat (DGS) to diets is shown to increase pregnancy rate in herds with low pregnancy rates

  23. Economics • Reduced heifer wintering cost $10.47/head feeding DGS supplement on winter range in Nebraska compared to conventional hay based system • Savings from reduced hay and labor • Same pregnancy rates (97%) • http://beef.unl.edu/beefreports/200605.shtml

  24. Economics • Iowa Beef Cow Business Records report average winter feed cost per cow of $1.01 per day • Corn stalks and DGS can be much less • Baled corn stalks, $17-25 per ton • Dried distillers grains, $70 per ton • Before for processing, feeding loss, or vit & min • Late gestation cost would be $.38-.51 per day • Early lactation cost would be $.57-.72 per day • Wet distillers grains is lower cost than DDGS • Supplement grazed corn stalks will also lower cost

  25. Resources • Distillers Grains for Beef Cows • http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/IBC26.pdf • A low cost vacuum storage method can preserve high moisture, distiller’s grains.Walker, Earing, and Mathews • http://www.ddgs.umn.edu/abstracts-beef/2005-Walker%20(235) %20A%20low%20cost%20vacuum%20storage--.pdf • The effect of vacuum stored high moisture distiller’s grains as a protein and energy supplement for beef cows Walker, Earing, and Mathews • http://www.ddgs.umn.edu/abstracts-beef/2005-Walker%20(239) • %20The%20effect%20of%20vacuum--.pdf • Review of Recent Beef Cow Trials Feeding Distillers Grains • http://www.ddgs.umn.edu/articles-beef/2005-Doering-Resch-%20Review%20of%20recent%20beef%20cow%20trials--.pdf • Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports: http://beef.unl.edu/reports.shtml