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  1. Biology EOI next week! EOI Review Pictures

  2. 1 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Pyramid of Energy Heat 0.1%Consumers • Illustrates that the amount of available energy _______ at each succeeding trophic level. 1% Consumers Heat 10% Consumers Heat decreases 100% Producers Heat Parasites, scavengers, and decomposers feed at each level.

  3. 2 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Pyramid of Numbers • Shows that population sizes ________ at each higher trophic level. Fox (1) decreases Birds (25) Grasshoppers (250) Grasses (3000)

  4. 3 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Pyramid of Biomass • The total weight of living matter at each trophic level. It represents the total weight of living material available at each trophic level. 1 kilogram of human tissue 10 kilograms of beef 100 kilograms of grain

  5. 4 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 The nitrogen cycle Nitrogen in the atmosphere Some excess nitrogen evaporates from soil. Dead plant matter Urine from animals Decomposing organisms Assimilated by plants Decomposers—bacteria and fungi—break down tissues and wastes and nitrogen-containing compounds are released. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the nodules on roots of leguminous plants fix atmospheric nitrogen. Released to the atmosphere Nitrogen compounds released into soils and acted upon by soil bacteria Converted to other nitrogen compounds by soil bacteria Nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria

  6. Food Web 5 Section 2 Check Chihuahuan raven Honey mesquite (pods eaten by beetles) Pronghorn antelope Gambel quail Jackrabbit Desert tortoise Coyote (top carnivore) Prickly pear cactus Long-tail weasel Roadrunner Kangaroo rat (seed eater) Mojave rattlesnake ants Red spotted toad Mexican whiptail lizard Texas horned lizard

  7. 6 Chapter Assessment Water Cycle Condensation Evaporation Transpiration Precipitation Runoff Evaporation Oceans Groundwater

  8. 7 Section 6.1 Summary – pages 141-151 Covalent bond • Two hydrogen atoms can combine with each other by sharing their electrons. Hydrogen molecule • Each atom becomes stable by _______ its electron with the other atom. sharing

  9. 8 Section 6.1 Summary – pages 141-151 Solution • a mixture in which one or more substances (______) are distributed evenly in another substance (______). solutes solvent • Sugar molecules in a powdered drink mix dissolve easily in water.

  10. 9 Summary Section 2 – pages 152-156 The results of diffusion • When a cell is in _________ ___________ with its environment, materials move into and out of the cell at equal rates. As a result, there is no net change in concentration inside or outside the cell. dynamic equilibrium Material moving out of cell equals material moving into cell

  11. 10 Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel • Who chose to use the _________ in his experiments for several reasons? garden pea • Garden pea plants reproduce sexually, which means that they produce male and female sex cells, called ________. gametes

  12. 11 The rule of dominance Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 • An uppercase letter is used for the dominant allele and a lowercase letter for the recessive allele. Short plant Tall plant t t T T t T F1 • The dominant allele is always written first…rule of ? All tall plants t T

  13. 12 Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Monohybrid crosses • A Punnett square for this cross is two boxes tall and two boxes wide because each parent can produce two kinds of gametes for this trait. Heterozygous tall parent T t T t T t T T TT Tt t t Tt tt T t Heterozygous tall parent

  14. 13 Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Dihybrid cross Gametes from RrYy parent Ry RY rY ry • four boxes on each side for a total of 16 boxes. RRYy RRYY RrYY RrYy RY RRYy RRYy RrYy Rryy Ry Gametes from RrYy parent rrYy RrYY RrYy rrYY rY RrYy rrYy Rryy rryy ry

  15. 14 Section 10.2 Summary – pages 263-273 meiosis • This pattern of reproduction, involving the production and subsequent fusion of haploid sex cells, is called ________________. Haploid gametes (n=23) Sperm Cell Egg Cell Fertilization Multicellular diploid adults (2n=46) Diploid zygote (2n=46) sexual reproduction

  16. 15 Section 2 Check Homologous Chromosome The two chromosomes of each pair in a diploid cell are called this. Each has genes for the same traits. a A Terminal Axial Inflated D d Constricted T t Short Tall

  17. 16 Section 17.1 Summary – pages 443-449 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Chordata Phylum Class Mammalia Carnivora Order Felidae Family Lynx Genus Species Lynx canadensis Lynx rufus Lynx Bobcat

  18. 17 Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459 Cladistics Allosaurus Velociraptor Robin Archaeopteryx Sinornis Theropods Flight feathers; arms as long as legs Feathers with shaft, veins, and barbs 3-toed foot; wishbone Down feathers Light bones

  19. 18 Life History Patterns • Biologists study the factor that determines population growth—an organism’s reproductive pattern, also called its ???

  20. Limiting factors, such as availability of food, disease, predators, or lack of space, will cause population growth to slow. • Under these pressures, the population may stabilize in an S-shaped growth curve. • The number of organisms of one species that an environment can support indefinitely is its ??? carrying capacity 19

  21. The graph of a growing population starts out slowly, then begins to resemble a J-shaped curve. exponential • Illustrates _______________ population growth, meaning that as a population gets larger, it also grows at a faster rate. Population Growth of Houseflies Population size One year 20

  22. 21 Active transport • A) Process that requires energy in which cells transport materials across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient • B)

  23. Endocytosis 22 • A) Active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell’s plasma membrane • B)

  24. Exocytosis 23 • A) Active transport process by which materials are expelled from a cell • B)

  25. Facilitated diffusion 24 • A) Passive transport of materials across a plasma membrane by transport proteins in the plasma membrane • B)

  26. Hypertonic solution 25 • A) In cells, solution which the concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell…more water inside and less water outside…water leaves the cell, causing the cell to shrink

  27. Hypotonic solution 26 • A) In cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration inside the cell…more water outside and less water inside…water enters the cell, causing the cell to swell

  28. Isotonic solution 27 • A) In cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell.

  29. Osmosis 28 • A) Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane • B)

  30. Passive transport 29 • A) Movement of particles across a cell membrane by diffusion or osmosis; the cell uses no energy to move the particles • B)

  31. Anaphase 30 • A) 3rd phase of mitosis in which the centromeres split and the chromatid pairs of each chromosome are pulled apart by microtubules • B)

  32. Cell cycle 31 • A) Continuous sequence of growth (interphase) and division (mitosis) in a cell • B)

  33. Centriole 32 • A) In animal cells, a pair of small cylindrical structures composed of microtubules that duplicate during interphase and move to opposite ends of the cell during prophase • B)

  34. Centromere 33 • A) Cell structure that joins 2 sister chromatids of a chromosome • B)

  35. Chromatin 34 • A) Long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes • B)

  36. Chromosome 35 • A) Cell structures that carry the genetic material that is copied and passed from generation to generation of cells • B)

  37. Cytokinesis 36 • A) Cell process following mitosis or meiosis in which the cell’s cytoplasm divides and separates into new cells. • B)

  38. Metaphase 37 • A) 2nd phase of mitosis where doubled chromosomes move to the equator of the spindle and chromatids are attached by centromeres to a separate spindle fiber. • B)

  39. Mitosis 38 • A) Period of nuclear cell division in which 2 daughter cells are formed, each containing a complete set of chromosomes. • B)

  40. Prophase 39 • A) 1st and longest phase of mitosis where chromatin coils into visible chromosomes. • B)

  41. Sister chromatid 40 • A) Identical halves of a duplicated parent chromosome formed during the prophase stage of mitosis; the halves are held together by a centromere. • B) Sister chromatids

  42. Spindle 41 • A) Cell structures composed of microtubules; forms between the centrioles during prophase and shorten during anaphase, pulling apart sister chromatids. • B)

  43. Telophase 42 • A) Final phase of mitosis during which new cells prepare for their own independent existence. • B)

  44. Gene 43 • A) Segment of DNA that controls the protein production and the cell cycle. • B)

  45. 44 • Incomplete Dominance • appearance of a 3rd phenotype. • Example: A homozygous red-flowered plant (RR) is crossed with a homozygous white-flowered plant (R’R’), all of the F1 generation offspring will have PINK flowers (RR’). R R R’ R’

  46. 45 • Codominance • Expression of both alleles • Example: Black (BB) rooster crossed with a white (WW) hen = checkered (BW) black and white. (Incomplete dominance would have been gray!)

  47. 46 • Traits controlled by more than 2 alleles have this… • multiple alleles • Example: Pigeons have 3 alleles that control feather color. • BA = ash red • B = blue • b = chocolate

  48. 47 • The 23rd pair of chromosomes in humans are ___ ____________and determine the sex of the offspring. XX = female XY = male sex chromosomes

  49. 48 • Traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes • sex-linked traits

  50. 49 • Polygenic inheritance • pattern of a trait that is controlled by 2 or more genes. • Example: eye color, skin color, height (AaBbCc…)