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An Australian Virtual Herbarium. Jim Croft. Australian National Herbarium. Panel. HISCOM members AD - Bill Barker BRI - Peter Bostock CANB - Greg Whitbread DNA - Anne Fuchs HO - MEL - Marco Duretto, Paul Cholodniuk NSW - Barry Conn PERTH - Alex Chapman. This Presentation.

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an australian virtual herbarium

An Australian Virtual Herbarium

Jim Croft

Australian National Herbarium

panel
Panel
  • HISCOM members
      • AD - Bill Barker
      • BRI - Peter Bostock
      • CANB - Greg Whitbread
      • DNA - Anne Fuchs
      • HO -
      • MEL - Marco Duretto, Paul Cholodniuk
      • NSW - Barry Conn
      • PERTH - Alex Chapman
this presentation
This Presentation
  • Description of an AVH
  • Need for an AVH
  • Preparedness for a AVH
  • Options for an AVH
avh keywords
AVH - Keywords
  • Herbarium
    • Collections of botanical specimens
    • Sources of botanical knowledge and expertise
    • Sources of botanical information
avh keywords1
AVH - Keywords
  • Virtual
    • Appearing as
    • Computer dependent
    • Graphic, visual
    • High Tech
    • On-line
avh keywords2
AVH - Keywords
  • Australian
    • Implies national in coverage and view
    • States and territories
    • Government, educational
    • Distributed
name options
Name Options
  • Australian Virtual Herbarium
  • Australian Herbarium Virtuality
  • Virtual Herbarium of Australia
  • Virtual Australian Herbarium
what is an avh like
What is an AVH like?
  • Conceptual parallels in the:
    • Australian National Rare and Endangered Plant Collection
    • Australian National Fungi Collection
    • Australian National Plant Collection
foci of the avh
Foci of the AVH
  • Past (and current) foci
    • data
    • database design
    • technology
    • networks
  • Focus for an AVH
    • Information
why do we need an avh
Why do we need an AVH?
  • Increasing expectations and demands on herbaria
  • Increasing costs of using duplicated data
  • Decreasing staff resources for herbaria
  • Gaps in individual data coverage
  • Competition from other sources
  • Demonstrable relevance of herbaria
cost of specimen data
Cost of Specimen Data
  • Excluding computing & herbarium support
  • $ 4 (- 5) per collection
    • c. $ 2 data entry
    • c. $ 2 geocode calculation/verification
  • Each duplicate redone by recipients
  • Maybe 4 - 6 duplicates per collection
  • 6 million herbarium specimens in Australia
  • Less than 50% databased
costs of other data
Costs of Other Data
  • Each herbarium maintains census
  • Each herbarium maintains taxonomy
  • Each taxonomist maintains a taxonomy
  • ? 5-6 x duplication of effort

(Total curation costs: $ 25-50 / specimen)

australian herbarium collections
Australian Herbarium Collections
  • Herbaria completely databased
    • BRI - 600 k
    • QRS - 100 k
    • DNA - 170 k
    • PERTH - 400 k
australian herbarium collections1
Australian Herbarium Collections
  • Herbaria partially databased
    • AD - 800 k (13 %)
    • CANB - 900 k (45 %)
    • HO - 350 k (20 %)
    • MEL - 1 M (6 %)
    • NSW - 900 k (25%)
australian herbarium collections2
Australian Herbarium Collections
  • Summary estimates from State Herbaria
    • November 1996
  • c. 5.3 million collections
  • c. 2.2 million databased
  • c. 42 % databased
australian herbarium collections3
Australian Herbarium Collections
  • c. $ 12 M to complete the job!
  • c. $ 1.5 M if we share the task!
  • Divided views in the past:
    • High priority - do it now
    • Collect more - do it later
benefits of an avh
Benefits of an AVH
  • Shared and common data
  • Common standards
  • Common authority files
  • Shared data entry and curation
  • Access to a larger database
  • Access to larger body of expertise
where have we come from
Where have we come from?
  • Printed books, articles
  • Ledgers and cards (‘60s)
  • Simple databases (‘70s)
  • Complex databases (‘80s/90s)
  • Network connection (‘90s)
  • Exchange of and sharing data (‘90s)
are we ready for an avh
Are we ready for an AVH?
  • Computerized collections data
  • Compatible database design
  • Common data standards
  • Agreed data interchange format (HISPID)
  • Increased technical understanding
  • Common purpose
  • Goodwill
elements of an avh
Elements of an AVH
  • Plant name information
  • Specimen information
  • Observational information
  • Taxon information
  • Mapping and distributional information
  • Expanding botanical knowledge
  • Dissemination of knowledge
  • Linking with other programs
elements of an avh cont
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Plant name information
    • Nomenclatural
    • Taxonomic
    • Systematic
    • Typification
    • Bibliographic
    • Common names
elements of an avh cont1
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Specimen information
    • Collections information
    • Transactions (accessions, loans)
    • Taxonomically authenticated point locality information
    • Images
      • live material, morphological, anatomical
elements of an avh cont2
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Observational information
    • Surveys
    • Sightings
    • Anecdotal reports
elements of an avh cont3
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Taxon information
    • Descriptive
      • Monographs, revisions, Floras, etc.
    • Images
      • live material, morphological, anatomical
    • Expert Identification systems
      • Intkey, Lucid, Meka, etc.
elements of an avh cont4
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Mapping and distributional information
    • checklists, censuses
    • Electronic gazetteers
    • GIS output
    • Modeling
    • Predictive output
elements of an avh cont5
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Expanding botanical knowledge
    • phylogenetic analysis
    • genetic studies
    • taxonomic research
elements of an avh cont6
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Dissemination of knowledge
    • Basic data
    • Derived information
    • Published floras
    • Educational information
    • Biological information systems
elements of an avh cont7
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Linking with other programs
    • Regional biodiversity, environmental, resource surveys
      • State and Territory surveys
      • Local Surveys
elements of an avh cont8
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Linking with other programs (cont.)
    • National biodiversity, environmental, resource surveys
      • ABRS
      • TSCS (ESU)
      • NHT (Landcare, RFA, CRA, etc.)
      • ERIN
      • NRIC
elements of an avh cont9
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Linking with other programs (cont.)
    • International projects
      • Plant Names Project
      • IOPI
      • Species 2000
      • NSF/ASC collections projects
      • World Bank / GEF
      • Data repatriation
elements of an avh cont10
Elements of an AVH (cont.)
  • Tools and Technology
    • Network Connectivity: Internet, WWW
    • Database functionality
    • Applications
can we build an avh
Can we build an AVH?
  • We have the technology
  • We have the ability
  • We have the data
  • We have the protocols and standards
  • Do we have the will?
where to start
Where to start?
  • We are exchanging data
  • Taxonomic and census data
  • Specimen data
  • Build a virtual type herbarium?
  • ?
principles for an avh
Principles for an AVH
  • Shared
  • Collaborative
  • Distributed
  • Dynamic
  • Accessible
  • Authoritative
  • Strategic and proactive
  • Relevant