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Teaching Adaptive Skills to People with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Adaptive skills=skills for daily life. Enable greater independence therefore less reliance on staff/family for basic needs give a sense of success. Teaching functional adaptive skills. Should be done in real life environments
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Enable greater independence therefore less reliance on staff/family for basic needs
give a sense of success
Should be done in real life environments
Should focus on skills the person needs in their day to day life
We are all dependent on context, environmental cues, prompts and reinforcement in order for us to learn new skills
Often for people with ASD, we need to make the context, prompts and reinforcement much more obvious in order that learning can take place
Three common teaching methods
Discrete Trial Training
Observe the person attempting the task & record where they need support
Have a clear & measurable goal
Break the task into manageable steps
Use knowledge of person & task to decide teaching method
Have a system for measuring success
Breaking down a task into manageable steps
Rule of thumb: The more disabled the person is, the smaller the steps should be
Steps should be described in clear and unambiguous language
Refers to the order in which the steps are taught
Forward Chaining=Start to Finish
Backward Chaining=Finish to Start
Global Chaining=Start at easiest step
PARTIAL PHYSICAL ASSIST
FULL PHYSICAL ASSIST
What motivates the person to learn the skill?
Task is broken into steps (task analysis)
The same prompt is used for each attempt
Reinforcement is given on completion of task
If task is not completed=failed trial, try again later
Frequent repetition, referred to as drills
Not a preferred method for most adults, but useful for adults with ASD and intellectual disability for:
In your group
Uses “in the moment” opportunities that occur in daily life
Uses prompts that are known to be successful for that person.
Not just random, opportunities for learning are planned
Also known as Graduated Assistance
Can be used in “Most to Least” or “Least to Most” formats
More “natural” in appearance
INDIRECT VERBAL (IV): What do you need to do next Rob?
DIRECT VERBAL (DV): Rob, put the paper on the tray, writing side upwards
GESTURE: Point to the tray on the photocopier
MODELING: Put the paper in the tray yourself so that Rob can observe
PARTIAL PHYSICAL ASSIST (PPA): Pass Rob the paper to be copied and guide him by the elbow to place the paper in the tray
FULL PHYSICAL ASSIST (FPA): Hand-over-hand assistance to put the paper in the tray
Discuss how you would go about finding which type of prompts were most effective for a person with ASD and severe intellectual disability.
Identify the natural reinforcers for people and take advantage of those opportunities where a natural reinforcer is occurs
Uses the teaching methods of task analysis, prompting, chaining, reinforcement
A key aspect of the TEACCH approach
Doesn’t have a strong evidence base as an overall concept, but the component parts do
Mangers, identify how you can support your staff to assist people with ASD to increase their daily living/work skills
Support staff/Therapists: Identify a person you work with, find out what type of prompts they respond best to and teach this to your colleagues