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  1. Why are People in Luxembourg Happy?Language as an Identifier of Culture in the Grand DuchybyDr Ursula Schinzel

  2. Research Question: The purposes of this study: • to explain where Luxembourg fits in on Hofstede’s 7 dimensions of culture • to explain Luxembourg people’s high scores on the measure of happiness

  3. Methods • Review of the Literature • Participant Observation (Primary Data) • Interviews (Primary Data) • Questionnaires (Primary Data)

  4. Literature Review • The era after Hofstede: • Triandis, Harry • Smith, Peter, B. • Schwartz, Shalom • Trompenaars, Fons & Hamden-Turner, Charles • De Mooij, Marieke • Inglehart, Ronald • The GLOBE, House, Robert; Hanges, Paul… • Schein, Edgar • Bond, Michael, Harris • Mintzberg, Henry • Minkov, Michael • Hofstede, Gert Jan • McSweeney • The era before Hofstede: • Maslow, Abraham • McClelland, David • Herzberg, Frederick • Rockeach, Milton • Hall, Edward • Kluckhohn, Florence and Strodtbeck, Fred • The era besides Hofstede: • Scholz, Christian; Böhm, Hans • Lewis, Richard D. • Spizzo, Daniel • The era beyond Hofstede: • Aaker, Jennifer • Briley, Donnel • Nakata, Cheryl • Kirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen….

  5. Culture Theories • The era before Hofstede (- 1980): • Abraham Maslow • David McClelland • Frederick Herzberg • Milton Rockeach • Edward Hall • Florence Kluckhohn • Fred Strodtbeck

  6. Culture Theories • Hofstede’s Era (1980-2000): • Christian Scholz • Hans Böhm • Richard D. Lewis • Daniel Spizzo

  7. Culture Theories • The era after Hofstede (2000 - ): • Harry Triandis, • Peter B. Smith, • Shalom Schwartz, • FonsTrompenaars & Charles Hamden-Turner, • Marieke De Mooij • Ronald Inglehart • The GLOBE: Robert House, Paul Hanges… • Edgar Schein, • Michael Harris Bond, • Henry Mintzberg • Michael Minkov • Gert Jan Hofstede, • McSweeney

  8. Culture Theories • New theories: • Jennifer Aaker • DonnelBriley • Cheryl Nakata • Kirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen….

  9. GeertHofstede (1928- ) What did he do? • Born in the Netherlands in 1928 • IBM HRM research in the 1960s • 116,000 questionnaires • Identified 4 cultural dimensions, later added more: • IDV/COLL, UAI, PDI, MAS/FEM, • LTO, IVR, MON. • Dared to contradict Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland • Brought cultural research from the US to Europe • Emeritus Professor at Maastricht University • Start at 2:36

  10. Culture is measured in terms of all of the following: symbols, heroes, rituals, values, practices, norms, beliefs, self-perceptions, cognitive ability and behaviours.

  11. Heroes are persons that serve as model, i.e. S.A.R. Grand-Duc Henri, Jean-Claude Juncker, Andy+Franck Schleck, Charly Gaul, Obama, Merkel, Hollande…

  12. Symbols are words, gestures, pictures or objects, i.e. jargon, dresses, hairstyle, flags or status symbols.

  13. Rituals are collective activities (Schouberfouer), ways of greeting (Moien), social and religious ceremonies (Octave).

  14. Values are broad tendencies, feelings that come in pairings like evil versus good, dirty versus clean, dangerous vs safe, forbidden vs permitted, moral vs immoral, ugly vs beautiful, unnatural vs natural, irrational vs rational.

  15. Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture - Explained Easily : Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) PowerDistance Index (PDI) Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation(LTO) Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR) Monumentalism (MON)

  16. Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) defined as “people looking after themselves and their immediate family only, versus people belonging to in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty”. Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) defined as “the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations”. Power Distance Index (PDI) defined as “the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally”. Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) defined as “the dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life”.

  17. Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation(LTO) defined as “the extent to which a society exhibits a pragmatic future-orientated perspective rather than a conventional historic or short-term point of view”. Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR) defined as “Indulgence stands for enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for regulation of these by strict social norms”. Monumentalism (MON) defined as “ veneration of heroes by buildings, songs, music, celebrations”.

  18. Luxembourg • Unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy • Grand Duke: Henri • Prime Minister: Jean-Claude Juncker • Official languages: Luxembourgish, French, German • Capital Luxembourg (90,000 inhabitants) • Size: 2,586 km2 • Population total: 511,000 • Motto: “Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn” “We want to remain what we are” • Anthem: “Ons Heemecht” – “Our Homeland” Queen Mary II and Marie-Astrid

  19. Femmes Leaders Luxembourg LPRA – Luxembourg Professionals Recruiters Association Data Analysis: ParticipantObservation HRone University Luxbg BEE SECURE PaperJam Business Club Fairs ‘Foires’ European Commission American Chamber of Commerce Libreria Italiana Brasseries, Restaurants,Hotels, Bars. POG – Personnel Officer’s Group Chamber of CommerceandSacred Heart UniversityLuxembourg Luxembourg prefers: Meeting in person, in a Hotel or Bank. Over Cocktail with Champagne/ Lunch or Dinner

  20. Culture Calculation Formulas • PDI = 35(mQVAL7 – mQVAL2) + 25(mQVAL23 – mQVAL26) + C (pd) • UAI = 40(m QVAL20 – mQVAL16) + 25(mQVAL24 – mQVAL27) + C (ua) • IDV = 35(mQVAL4 – mQVAL1) + 35(mQVAL9 – mQVAL6) + C (ic) • MAS = 35(mQVAL5 – mQVAL3) + 35(mQVAL08 – mQVAL10) + C (mf) • LTO = 40(mQVAL18 – mQVAL15) + 25(mQVAL28 – mQVAL25) + C (ls) • IVR = 35(mQVAL12 – mQVAL11) + 40(mQVAL19 – mQVAL17) + C (ir) • MON = 35(mQVAL14 – mQVAL13) + 25 (mQVAL22 – mQVAL21) + C (mo)

  21. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension: Interviews’ and Questionnaires’ Results in Collaboration with Lindab Buildings Diekirch Table 1 Comparison Luxembourg – Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality (Lux. Nat.) – Hofstede’s estimates on Luxembourg (on a scale from 1-100, 1 being the lowest and 100 the highest score)

  22. Table 2 Cultural dimensions in Luxembourg - Lux. Nat. – France – Germany – UK – Belgium FR – Belgium NL – Italy – the Netherlands NL – China – USA – Japan (on a scale from 0-100) (0=lowest, 100=highest)

  23. Logistic Regression What is Logistic Regression? Logistic regression allows prediction of group membership, for example, prediction of whether someone is a belly dancer based on gender, occupational category, preferred type of reading material and age. Logistic regression allows to evaluate the odds (the probability) of membership in the group of belly dancers based on the combination of values of the predictor variables, 25 year old female sports professor, teaching hip-hop and reading dance books.

  24. Logistic Regression Definition: Logistic Regression is a statistical method used to model the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable – like for example ‘happiness’– and a combination of independent variables – like for example ‘taking risk’, ‘free time for life’, ‘level of education’‘job level manager or non-manager’, ‘state of health’, ‘religion’. Logistic Regression is calculated in SPSS. SPSS is a computer program from IBM. SPSS means ‘Statistical Package for the Social Sciences’. Between 2009 and 2010 it was called PASW – ‘Predictive Analytics SoftWare’.

  25. Logistic Regression Table Logistic regression – Being happy – Regression coefficient and Odds Ratio

  26. Correlation Matrix

  27. Logistic Regression: The probability of Luxembourgers of being happy Who takes risk Who takes free time for life for him/herself Probability of being happy = 0.97 Person 1 Who has a high level of education Who dares to contradict the boss Whose state of health is good For whom religion is important Who does Not take risk Person 2 Probability of being happy = 0.94 Who takes free time for life for him/herself Who has a high level of education Who dares to contradict the boss Whose state of health is good For whom religion is important

  28. N=134; * p<.05; ** p<.001 Correlation among all variables in SPSS

  29. Conclusion LONG-TERM ORIENTATION Luxembourgers are • highly uncertainty avoidant • take their language as identifier • long-term oriented • have low power distance • highly collectivist • and are happy LOW POWER DISTANCE HIGH UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE LANGUAGE AS IDENTIFIER HIGH COLLECTIVISM/ LOW INDIVIDUALISM HAPPY

  30. PDI(Power Distance Indicator) in Luxembourg is low with 36/100. • Lux.Nat. have an even lower PDI of 29, compared with China (80) and France (68) • Luxembourg being small, hierarchy is not felt that much, boss and employees meet in the same sport clubs, supermarkets, bars, evening events Explanations

  31. UAI(Uncertainty Avoidance Indicator) is high, near 100 in Luxembourg (97) and Lux.Nat.(95) • Uncertain and unknown situations are avoided, • Secure, regulated, clear life without surprises, is preferred Explanations

  32. IDV(Individualism versus Collectivism) is medium (51.5) in Luxembourg and diverges from Lux.Nat. (34). • Lux.Nat. are highly collective people, preferring the well-being of the group and country • This is contrary to people in USA (91) and Italy (76), where people take their time for themselves or their immediate family Explanations

  33. MAS(Masculinity versus Femininity) is medium (47) for Luxembourg and Lux.Nat. (54) • This shows a country where the characteristics of a masculine dominant country = competition and success, and those of a feminine dominant country = caring for others and quality of life, are equally distributed • The most masculine countries are Japan (95), Austria and Venezuela, the most feminine are Sweden, Norway and The Netherlands Explanations

  34. LTO (Long-Term Orientation versus Short-Term Orientation) is high in Luxembourg (69) and Lux.Nat. (65) • Long-term is characterized by foreseen, and planned events and by perseverance and thrift • Contrary to USA (26) where short-term decisions are taken. • Germany with score of 83 on LTO is the example for a highly long-term oriented country Explanations

  35. IVR (Indulgence versus Restraint) is medium in Luxembourg (53.5) and Lux.Nat. (55) • In general people in Luxembourg indulge on life, they love profiting from the benefits of life, they enjoy life • Italy has an IVR of 30, where religion, traditions and social rules limit personal enjoying of life Explanations

  36. MON(Monumentalism) is low in Luxembourg (10) but more than the double for Lux.Nat. (24). • Lux.Nat. love their national traditions and nationality, the Grand Ducal family, National Day, National Hymn and are living their national identity. • The USA (54.2) are living a strong MON, contrary to Japan (4); US people love symbols, banner, heroes, their president, elections… Explanations

  37. After World War I the need was to assure the national identity, to give value to the concept of ‘citizenship’, why it is important to be ‘Luxembourger’ and the advantages that come with the citizenship. When Nazism (World War II) engulfed small Luxembourg, because for Germans this small land seemed to be German, the Luxembourgish language attained its importance, the discriminating factor to distinguish between who is able to benefit from Luxembourgish citizenship and its advantages, and who not. Luxembourgish language defines the in-group. In order to benefit from all of the advantages of the Luxembourgish nationality, one has to be able to speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is not only a dialect, but the key giving access to the advantages of the rights of the citizenship. French is for bureaucratic problems, German for religious ceremonies, Luxembourgish to define the in-group (Spizzo, 1995). Language as Identifier

  38. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture in Luxembourg: Why are people in Luxembourg happy? Luxembourgers are happy because they: are highly uncertainty avoidant take their language as identifier are long-term oriented have low power distance are highly collectivist

  39. Thank you for your attention