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GAP. Generally Accepted Principles (GAP) … for reporting waste generation and diversion Presentation to: BC Environment Staff 20 th April, 2010 Maria Kelleher, M. Eng., P. Eng. Kelleher Environmental. The origins of GAP.

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Generally Accepted Principles (GAP) …

for reporting waste generation and diversion

Presentation to:

BC Environment Staff

20th April, 2010

Maria Kelleher, M. Eng., P. Eng.

Kelleher Environmental

the origins of gap
The origins of GAP
  • Strathroy, Ontario - contract awarded on basis of very high diversion percentage (>90%)
  • Contractor who did not win launched suit
  • Key question became “what does a particular diversion percentage mean?
  • CSR - volunteered to set up a committee to address issue
why csr spearheaded development of gap
Why CSR Spearheaded Development of GAP
  • CSR objective - develop and promote cost effective recycling and waste management systems
  • Good data is the key to optimizing waste diversion systems
  • CSR recognized the need for a national approach to data reporting
  • GAP was established to identify a good method to collect good waste diversion and disposal data
gap vision
GAP Vision
  • GAP stands for Generally Agreed Principles
  • Purpose of GAP for waste flow is to develop a common reporting framework which allows municipalities across Canada to compare diversionof residential waste management systems
  • GAP started with RESIDENTIAL waste, moved on to ALL MUNICIPAL WASTE at request of Kootenay Boundary
why gap
Why GAP?
  • Locally defined rules – diversion reporting was often politically or economically driven
  • Municipal search for higher diversion/ lower cost systems requires high quality information
  • Needed consistent reporting approach
  • No ‘right or wrong’ methods- but need consistency
  • Needed a consensus approach to a common methodology that everyone would buy into
benefits of gap to users
Benefits of GAP To Users
  • Debunks ‘myths’ about other municipalities are doing better than you
  • If municipal reports do not use GAP, you do not know if their numbers are ‘real’ or not
  • Require others to use GAP to compare to your municipality
  • “Apples to Apples” is essential for transparency
some gap comparisons 2003 2004
Trois Rivieres, PQ 12%

Regina, Sask 16%

Winnipeg 18%

Calgary 19%

Banff 24%

Toronto 31%

Whitehorse 32% (all municipal)

Guelph 38%

Kootenay Bdy 39% (all munic)

St. Thomas 45%

Seattle, Washington 46%

Ottawa Valley 54%

Halifax 56%

Some GAP Comparisons 2003/2004
benefits of gap to users1
Benefits of GAP To Users
  • Common framework to collect, report and summarize waste management information
  • Good guide to putting simple data collection systems in place
    • After systems in place, easy to do annual updates
  • Good monitoring tool to measure performance of diversion systems from one year to the next
  • Good method to keep your neighbours honest
      • (apples to apples)
the gap team national and multi stakeholder
The GAP Team - National and Multi-Stakeholder
  • Municipal
    • Kootenay, Calgary, Winnipeg, Toronto, Guelph, Halifax
  • Provincial and Federal Government
    • BC, Alberta, Ontario, NS
    • Env Can, Statscan, NRCAN
  • Industry and Stewardship Organizations
    • MPSC, CSQ, Clorox
  • NGOs and Associations
    • AOMGMR (Quebec) RCA, Canada Composting Council
concept and approach
Concept and Approach
  • Keep it simple
  • Collect minimal amount of data
  • “Entry level” data collection tool
  • Put all summary municipal data on one page; GAP data creates a GAP Chart
  • Started with faxed forms in 2000; moved to Excel format by 2001
gap household waste flow chart

C.1 Stewardship System Processing

B.1 household Component of Deposit, Return & Stewardship Programmes

D.1 Deposit, Return and Stewardship Programmes

D.2 Re-use

C.2 Recyclables Processing

B.2 Household Re-use

A.1 In-Property Managment

D.3 On Property Managment


B.3 Kerbside household recyclables collection

C.3 Organics Processing

D.7 HHW Re-use / Recycling

C.4 Diversion at Landfill or Transfer Sites

B.4 Kerbside household source separated organics collection

D.4 Recyclables Diverted

A.2 Household Waste Generation

D.5 Organics Diverted

C.5 HSW Treatment/ Re-use / Recycling

B.5 Bulky & Special Waste collection

D.6 EFW Mass Reduction


C.6 Incineration & EFW

D.8 Hazardous Waste Landfill

B.6 Drop Off at Depots, Transfer, & Disposal Site


D.9 Landfill

C.7 Mixed Waste Processing

B.7 Kerbside household Garbage Collection

D.10 Other Disposal



Final Destination

GAP household Waste Flow Chart

Summary Statistics

data needed for gap
Data Needed For GAP
  • Population, households
  • On-site management:
      • Backyard composters;
      • Policies on grass-cycling;
      • Organic waste collected in aerated carts;
      • Estimates of open burning/burning in fireplaces
  • Curbside recyclables, organics, garbage
  • Drop off recyclables, organics, garbage
  • Residue rates at MRF and composting site
special collection and drop off data categories

just one category

Xmas trees

Source separated organics

Leaf and yard waste


white goods

Scrap metals






Special Collection and Drop-Off Data Categories
default values in gap
“Default” values in GAP
  • 100 kg per backyard composter per year
  • 36kg/cap for garburators per year
  • Diversion in GAP is “net of residue” – an incentive to reduce residues
    • Residue default values set at rate to encourage better measurement
    • Municipality can use their own data, but must show source
  • 5% for MRF residue rate (2-stream)
    • Increased to 12% to 15% for single stream recycling
  • 20% for composting residue rate
diversion in gap
Diversion in GAP
  • Deposit, return and stewardship programs automatically calculated per capita for each province
  • Re-use (managed by municipality)
  • Backyard composting, grass-cycling,
  • Evapotranspiration (aerated carts only)
  • Garburators (if biosolids diverted)
  • HSW re-use and recycling
  • Recyclables diverted
  • Organics diverted
r ecovery and d isposal in gap
Recovery and Disposal in GAP
  • EFW mass reduction is defined as recovery
    • Allows jurisdictions which track recovery separate from disposal to show separately
    • Most Canadian jurisdictions count EFW mass reduction as disposal
  • Solid and hazardous waste landfill is counted as disposal
beneficial use in gap
Beneficial Use in GAP
  • Benefical Use Committee 2004 tackled a number of issues
  • Definition of “beneficial use”;
    • Applied mostly to tires, glass, low quality compost, chipped wood
  • How to address material use within landfill boundaries
    • Should glass for roadbed construction, etc. be counted as a lower value than glass returned to glass manufacture
  • Are all “beneficial uses” considered diversion
g ap status in 2004
GAP Status in 2004
  • Decisions on GAP approach and rules made by National multi-stakeholder team
    • Rules change over time
    • Meetings every three months by conference call
  • 40 communities in Canada had GAP charts on CSR website
  • 15 UK GAPs on website
  • Designed process to generate GAP chart automatically from Ontario “Datacall” process
  • GAP envisioned as permanent ‘work in progress’,
    • would continue to evolve with more municipal input
gap status in 2010
GAP Status in 2010
  • Statistics Canada added GAP to bi-annual reporting 2006
  • National GAP Committee no longer active as of 2004
  • Ontario adopted GAP for municipal benchmarking and performance reporting 2001
  • WDO adopted GAP for diversion and disposal reporting 2005
  • 2006/2007 WDO developed verification protocols
    • “Tests” to ensure reported numbers reasonable
    • “default values” for cases where data not measured
  • GAP diversion value for 200 municipalities posted on WDO website annually based on Datacall results