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Study Canada Summer Institute for K-12 Educators A Capital view of canada: Nations within a nation . Deborah pelletier July 6, 2012. Outline . Introductions Why do we teach about Native peoples? Considerations for learning and teaching about Native peoples:
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July 6, 2012
Is it about..
When pushed to the periphery of curricula, it reproduces Western ideals that devalue Indigenous populations and their struggles
Without basic knowledge of Indigenous populations in North America, it is impossible for cross-cultural understanding to exist as anything other than an ideal
When the Aboriginal story is not told – respected, its absence (or limited approach) constitutes a threat to the moral structure of a current position of privilege
When education conceptualizes Aboriginal peoples as obstacles, beneficiaries, and/or victims of Western development, i.e., “inevitable progress” with limited depictions, it reinforce stereotypes, prejudices and racist thinking
When not presenting the facts about colonialism, it allows us to distance ourselves and our students from the residual injustices and inequities
Critical engagement of Aboriginal issues within an historical context connected to present realities
Aboriginal issues take precedence over others because of unique histories - contemporary struggles are central to the past, present and future
Engage historical and contemporary issues of social justice in an environment that fosters critical questions about privilege, oppression and power
Use content that balances negative aspects with positive contributions.
Replace textbooks/books which relegate Aboriginal issues to the sidebars, visually framing the issues as separate from the main content of curriculum with extensive unit planning (one week to a month for deeper understanding, enrichment and evaluationsor develop entire course
Provide teacher training at college/university and professional development with Boards
There are 615 First Nations which represent more than 50 nations or cultural groups and 50+ Aboriginal languages
Registered Indian under The Indian Act
Bill C3 (2010)
Non status Metis
Approximately one third of all Aboriginal people in Canada identify themselves as Métis. Between 1996 and 2006, important political and legal milestones may have encouraged individuals to identify themselves as Métis. The Métis received significant recognition in the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996) and have won one important supreme court case related to the recognition of hunting rights (R. vs. Powley, 2003).
People of mixed First Nation and European ancestry who self-identify and are accepted by Métis nation (leadership). Distinct in language, culture and heritage and history.
No national or legal definition.
The Inuit have a homeland that covers almost one-third of Canada, from eastern Yukon to the eastern coast of Labrador.
The word "Inuit" means "the people" in the Inuit language called, Inuktitut and is the term by which Inuit refer to themselves. The term "Eskimo," applied to Inuit by European explorers, is no longer used in Canada. Inuit is not accepted as a collective term. No universal term, inclusive of all Inuit and Yupik people, exists for the Inuit and Yupik people.
Algonquian, Eskimo=Aleut, Athapaskan, Iroquoian, Siouan, Salishan, Tsimshianic, Wakashane, Na-Dene, Isolates
Some of the 50+ Aboriginal Languages:
Michif, Algonquin, Assiniboine, Atikamek, Babine, Bella Coola, Blackfoot, Carrier, Cayuga, Chipewyan (Dene), Swampy Cree, Plains Cree, Dogrib, Halkomelem, Kwakiutl, Micmac, Mohawk, Montagnais-Naskapi, Ojibway (Saulteaux), Stoney (Nakota), North Slavey Tsimshian, Eastern and Western Inuktitut
Aboriginal language s most viable are Inuktitut and those within the Algonquian Family, e.g., Cree, Ojibway and the Athapaskan Family, e.g., Dene Dogrib Inuktitut.Aboriginal languages
According to 2001 Census data, of the 976,300 people who identified themselves as Aboriginal, 235,000 (or 24%) reported that they were able to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language.
This represents a sharp drop from 29% in 1996,2 and appears to confirm most research which suggests that there has been substantial erosion in the use of Aboriginal languages in recent decades.
Historical and Contemporary Geographical Regions/Territories/Cultural Areas/Lands and Resources
Traditional and Contemporary Languages – Mapping the Ties That Bind
Western Hierarchical Worldview
Aboriginal Holistic Worldview
Based on interdependent relationships – people of the land
A matriarchal system
Relationships are based on laws of nature
You are born complete, with knowledge, you embody all knowledge of past, present and future
Equal participation and responsibility is encouraged – harmony, interconnectedness
Knowledge is power
Five Cohorts of Students:
Ministry of Education, Ontario First Nations and Metis Framework, 2009
Different forms of bias occurring over time in resources have been identified. These include:
(Diverse Voices. Saskatchewan Education 1995-2)
Canadian Aboriginal History: Olive Dickason's Story Part 1. Villager’s Media
Aboriginal History: Did You Know? A four part series, The Sharing Circle, on APTN (YOU TUBE)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMTwxxT3j2k&feature=related
Indicators of Success/Progress
Correct terminology illustrated in texts, images, language throughout school.
School has implemented division policy to reflect cultural affirmation
Activities are developed to reflect diversity in schools
School has engaged community in planning
Teachers understand and use authentic resources in unit and lesson planning
Two in-service days dedicated to learning to teach
Library and Archives Canada
who will teach the children of our ways?”
Chief Dan George My Heart Soars