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OT Survey I

OT Survey I

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OT Survey I

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  1. OT Survey I The Twelve

  2. Introduction • The last of the latter prophets is known as “The Twelve” in Hebrew tradition. • They are better known to us as the “Minor Prophets” • “Minor” speaks not of their significance but rather of their length (minor = “smaller” in Latin) • Are they minor ( = “insignificant”) in our mind though?

  3. Introduction Adapted from J. E. Smith, The Minor Prophets

  4. Introduction Adapted from J. E. Smith, The Minor Prophets

  5. Time Period Jeroboam II (Israel) Uzziah (Judah) 770 BC Assyrian exile 722 BC Assyrian Defeat 701 BC Babylonian exile 586 BC Cyrus’s decree 539 BC Nehemiah in Jerusalem ~ 420 BC Jonah, Hosea, Amos Isaiah, Micah Nahum, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Habakkuk Ezekiel, Daniel Haggai, Zechariah Malachi Joel? Obadiah?

  6. Hosea

  7. Hosea - Introduction • Dates (~ 755 – 710 BC) • Beginning in the prosperous days of Jeroboam II (2 Kings 14:25) through the downfall of the Northern Kingdom in 722 BC. • Note that he marks his ministry by the kings of the Southern Kingdom first! • Target • Northern Kingdom, which he often calls Ephraim and Samaria as well as Israel. • At times, the southern kingdom (e.g., 1:7, 10)

  8. Hosea Ezekiel Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Map taken from Ezekiel, NICOT, p. xxi 770 Jeroboam II Uzziah 722 Fall of Israel 701 Jerusalem Spared 605 First Deportation 597 Second Deportation 586 Fall of Judah 539 Decree of Cyrus 516 Temple Rebuilt 445 Jerusalem Rebuilt

  9. Hosea - Structure • Wayward Wife, Loving Husband (1-3) • Narrative: Gomer wayward (1) • Poetry: Israel wayward but brought home (2) • Narrative: Gomer brought home (3) • Wayward Israel, Loving Yahweh (4-10) • Wayward Son, Loving Father (11-14)

  10. Hosea – Major Themes • Love • God’s initial love for Israel (9:10, 10:1; 11:1-4) • Israel’s love for other nations, gods (2:5-13; 3:1; 4:18; 8:9; 9:1, 10; 12:7) • God’s refusal to show further love (1:6; 2:4; 9:15; 13:14) • God’s continued love for Israel (2:14-25; 3:1-5; 11:8-11; 14:4-9) • Knowledge of God (2:8, 20; 4:1, 6; 5:4; 6:6; 8:1-4; 11:3; 13:4)

  11. Hosea – Major Themes • Returning/Repentance (23x in 14 chapters) • Israel’s Need, God’s call (2:7; 6:1; 12:6; 14:2-3) • Israel’s Unwillingness, inability (5:4; 7:10; 7:16; 11:5) • God’s “returning” • He’ll “return” (i.e., take back) His blessings (2:11) • He’ll “return” their deeds to them (4:9; 12:2) • He’ll “return” to His ‘home’ and wait for Israel (5:15; cf. 3:4-5) • He’ll “return” them to Egypt (8:13; 9:3; 11:5; 12:10, 15) • He’ll cause Israel to “return” in the future (3:5; cf. 2:14; 14:5, 7) • Israel’s spiritual harlotry/adultery (1:2; 2:1-13; 3:3; 4; 5; 7:4; 8; 9:1; 10:1; 11:2; 12:1)

  12. Hosea – Purpose • To contrast God’s unfathomable love for and knowledge of Israel with Israel’s love for other gods and utter ignorance of God. • To call on Israel to return to God, demonstrate her unwillingness to do so, and warn of the consequences which would soon come as a result of her stubbornness.

  13. Hosea and Earlier Revelation • Hosea and Genesis

  14. Hosea and Genesis(Adapted from Garrett, Hosea, Joel, p. 28)

  15. Hosea and Earlier Revelation • Genesis • Exodus • Hosea 2:14-15: A new exodus • Hosea 11:1 – Out of Egypt I called my son • Hosea 13:4-5 – God cared for them in Egypt and the wilderness • Deuteronomy • Hosea 4:1-2 – 5 of the 10 commandments • Deuteronomy 30:2 and the idea of “returning” • Judges (3:4) • “Without king” – Judges: “in those days…” • “Without sacrifice” – Judges: What tabernacle? • “Ephod or household idols” – Judges 17:5; 18:14, only other place these are paired together • Samuel (13:10-11) • Kings (8:4-5) • Latter Prophets?...Hosea comes before Isaiah-Ezekiel!

  16. Hosea and Later Revelation (OT) • Hos 2:18 “In that day I will make a covenant for them with the beasts of the field, with the birds of the air, and with the creeping things of the ground. Bow and sword of battle I will shatter from the earth, to make them lie down safely” • Ezek 34:25-28 “I will make a covenant of peace with them and eliminate harmful beats from the land, so that they may live securely in the wilderness and sleep in the woods…[T]hey will no longer be a prey to the nations, and the beasts of the earth will not devour them; but they will live securely, and no one will make them afraid” • Note also “forever” and “in righteousness”, Hos 2:19

  17. Hosea and Later Revelation (NT) • Hosea 6:6 “I delight in loyalty rather than sacrifice, and in the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings” (Matt 9:13; 12:7) • Hosea 11:1 “Out of Egypt I called my son” (Matt 2:15) • Hosea 13:14 “O Death, where are your thorns? O Sheol, where is your sting?” (1 Cor 15:55) • Hos 1:9, 10; 2:23, quoted by Paul in Romans 9:25-26: “As He says also in Hosea, ‘I will call those who were not My people, “My people,” And her who was not beloved, “beloved.”’ And it shall be that in the place where it was said to them, ‘you are not My people,’ There they shall be called sons of the living God.”

  18. Hosea – Interpretive Issues • State of Gomer • A dream, vision • Gomer is a harlot spiritually • Gomer would become a harlot • Gomer was a harlot initially • Woman of Chapter 3

  19. Joel

  20. Joel - Introduction • Date • Joel doesn’t say! • Some facts • No king mentioned (after 586?) [also not in Nahum, Habakkuk] • Temple mentioned (1:13) (before 586 or after 516?) • Assyria, Babylon, Persia not mentioned (before 750?) • Tyre, Sidon, Philistia, Egypt, and Edom mentioned (before 750?), but not Syria • Connection between Joel (3:16; 3:18) and Amos (1:2; 9:13) (before 750?) • “They have scattered [Israel] among the nations; they have divided up My land” (3:2) (after 586?) • Tentatively, sometime in 9th century BC • (Usually ca. 830 BC, while King Joash was a minor; thus references to elders, priests and not king) • Explain language of 3:2-3 on basis of 3:1: “In those days and at that time, when I restore the fortunes of Judah and Jerusalem, …” • Target - Southern Kingdom; in particular, Jerusalem

  21. Joel Ezekiel Joel Isaiah Jeremiah ? Map taken from Ezekiel, NICOT, p. xxi 835 Joash 770 Jeroboam II Uzziah 722 Fall of Israel 701 Jerusalem Spared 605 First Deportation 597 Second Deportation 586 Fall of Judah 539 Decree of Cyrus 516 Temple Rebuilt 445 Jerusalem Rebuilt

  22. Joel - Structure -- THE DAY OF THE LORD – • Dusk: Land razed by locusts (1:1-14) • Worse coming! Destruction (1:15-20) • Midnight: Land destroyed by army (2:1-11) • Call to Repentance (2:12-17) • Dawn: Land restored by Yahweh (2:18-27) • Better coming! Deliverance (2:28-31) • Noon: Land delivered by Yahweh (3:1-21) Adapted from Dorsey, Literary Structure of the OT, p. 275

  23. Joel – Major Themes • Day of the Lord • Near and Coming (1:15; 2:1) • Coming (2:1) • Dark and Terrible; Great and Awesome (2:2, 11) • Cataclysmic Signs, Wonders (2:29, 31) • Judgment on the Nations, Restoration of Jerusalem (3:14, 17-18) • Agriculture & Military – The foci of covenant discipline and blessing in Joel

  24. Joel – Major Themes • Jerusalem (1:9, 13-14, 16; 2:14-17, 32; 3:1, 6, 16-18, 20-21) • The Nations • That Israel would not be a reproach among them (2:17; 19) • That they would be judged for their treatment of Israel (3:2-17)

  25. Joel – Purpose • In response to the nearness and terror of the Day of Yahweh, Israel should repent; if they will, God will restore their fortunes and turn that day into a time of deliverance.

  26. Joel and Later Revelation • Joel 3:16 picked up by Amos 1:2 • Joel 3:18 picked up by Amos 9:13 • Joel 2:28-32 quoted by Peter in Acts 2:16-21.

  27. Amos

  28. Amos - Introduction • Date (~ 760 BC) • In the prosperous days of Jeroboam II (2 Kings 14:25), two years before “the earthquake” • “[Y]ou will flee just as you fled before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah” (Zech 14:5) • [After Uzziah attempted to burn incense,] “a great earthquake shook the ground and a rent was made in the temple, and the bright rays of the sun shone through it, and fell upon the king’s face, insomuch that leprosy seized him immediately” (Josephus, Antiquities 9:10:4). • Excavations at Hazor seem to indicate that an earthquake occurred around 760 BC. • Note that he marks his ministry by a king of the Southern Kingdom first (like Hosea)! • Target • Northern Kingdom, especially Bethel • Amos was from Southern Israel (Tekoa is 10 miles south of Jerusalem) • He preached in Bethel in the presence of the king (7:10-13)

  29. Amos Ezekiel Amos Isaiah Jeremiah Map taken from Ezekiel, NICOT, p. xxi 770 Jeroboam II Uzziah 722 Fall of Israel 701 Jerusalem Spared 605 First Deportation 597 Second Deportation 586 Fall of Judah 539 Decree of Cyrus 516 Temple Rebuilt 445 Jerusalem Rebuilt

  30. Amos - Structure • Judgment upon Israel and Neighbors (1-2) • Destruction of Israel, especially Bethel (3) • Rich Israelite Women, Yahweh’s Coming Judgment (4) • Call to Repentance (5:1-17) • Rich Israelite Men, Yahweh’s Coming Judgment (5:18-6:14) • Destruction of Israel, especially Bethel (7:1-8:3) • Judgment upon Israel, but Future Restoration (8:4-9:15) Adapted from Dorsey, Literary Structure of the OT, p. 285

  31. Amos – Major Themes • Justice/Righteousness • Israel’s Lack (2:6; 3:10; 5:7; 6:12) • God’s Call (5:14-15, 24) • Especially in socioeconomic dealings • Poor (2:6-8; 4:1; 5:11-12; 7:6; 8:4, 6) • Rich (3:10, 12, 15; 4:1; 6:4-8; 8:5-6) • Judgment Announced (1-4 [3:7-8; 4:6-12]; 5:16-27; 6:7-14; 7; 8:1-3, 7-14; 9:1-4, 8) • Announcements Quenched (2:12; 5:10; 7:10-16) • Bethel (3:14; 4:4; 5:5-6; 7:10-13) • False Worship (3:14; 4:4-5; 5:21-27; 8:5)

  32. Amos – Purpose • To announce God’s impending judgment on Israel for their unrighteous deeds and vain worship and call for repentance from the nation. • [Note: Much less positive than Joel regarding the result of such repentance. This is partly due to northern vs. southern kingdom and partly due to its (likely) later time]

  33. Amos and Earlier Revelation • Amos and the Covenant Curses • Amos 4: Lack of bread (v. 6; cf. Lev 26:26), withholding of rain (v. 7; cf. Lev 26:4; Deut 28:12, 24), blight and mildew (v. 8; cf. Deut 28:22), plague (v. 9; cf. Lev 26:21; esp. Deut 28:59-60), and sword (v. 9; cf. Deut 28:22) • Amos 5:11: Though you have built houses, you won’t live in them; though you have planted vineyards, you won’t drink their wine (cf. Deut 28:30) • Amos and Joel (see Joel slides)

  34. Amos and Later Revelation • Amos 9:11-12, quoted by James in Acts 15:14-18: “Simeon has related how God first concerned Himself about taking from among the Gentiles a people for His name. And with this the words of the Prophets agree, just as it is written, ‘After these things I will return, and I will rebuild the tabernacle of David which has fallen, and I will rebuild its ruins, and I will restore it, in order that the rest of mankind may seek the Lord, and all the Gentiles who are called by My name,’ says the Lord, who makes these things known from of old.”

  35. Obadiah

  36. Obadiah - Introduction • Date • Obadiah doesn’t say! • Historical background: vv. 10-14, Edom participated in plundering Jerusalem and mercilessly killing those escaping the city. • Clearly Edom had such a role in 586 BC (Jer 49; Lam 4:21, 22; Ezek 35; Psa 137) • But, it seems as though Obadiah is referring to an earlier occurrence. • Note that Obadiah is placed with the earlier prophets, not the exilic ones • Note that Amos 1:11 speaks of Edom chasing his brother with a sword and not showing compassion • Note that Joel 3:19 speaks of Egypt and Edom both acting mercilessly in Jerusalem. These correspond to the first two successful attacks upon Jerusalem: (1) By Shishak of Egypt in Rehoboam’s reign; (2) by the Philistines and Arabians in the time of Jehoram (note Edom’s revolt at that time in the context of 2 Chr 21) • Tentatively, sometime after 850 BC, close to the time of Joel’s writing • Target - Southern Kingdom; in particular, Jerusalem

  37. Obadiah Ezekiel Obadiah Isaiah Jeremiah ? Map taken from Ezekiel, NICOT, p. xxi 835 Joash 770 Jeroboam II Uzziah 722 Fall of Israel 701 Jerusalem Spared 605 First Deportation 597 Second Deportation 586 Fall of Judah 539 Decree of Cyrus 516 Temple Rebuilt 445 Jerusalem Rebuilt

  38. Obadiah - Structure • Edom’s Pride (1-9) • Edom’s Violence (10-14) • Edom’s Demise (15-21)

  39. Obadiah – Major Themes • Sin of Edom • Their Pride • Their Violence • Judgment of Edom (important: Note v. 15 – The Day of the Lord is coming upon all nations) • Restoration of Israel

  40. Obadiah – Purpose • To proclaim that Edom’s sin against Yahweh (pride) and against Israel (violence) will result in her judgment on the Day of the Lord. • Edom appears to be representative of all nations in this regard (cf. v. 15)

  41. Purpose Review (1-4) • Hosea: God’s love for Israel contrasts with Israel’s love for idols; He will love them though they refuse to repent. • Joel: Call Israel to repent in light of the coming Day of Yahweh • Amos: Call Israel to repent in light of the coming judgment from Yahweh. • Obadiah: Edom (and all nations) will receive judgment for their sin on the Day of Yahweh

  42. Jonah

  43. Jonah - Introduction • Date (~ 760 BC) • In the prosperous days of Jeroboam II • “[Jeroboam II] restored the border of Israel from the entrance of Hamath as far as the Sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the LORD, the God of Israel, which He spoke through His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet, who was of Gath-hepher” (2 Kings 14:25) • Target • Jonah was a prophet to the northern kingdom • Who would you say the message of the book was directed to, though?

  44. Jonah Ezekiel Jonah Isaiah Jeremiah Map taken from Ezekiel, NICOT, p. xxi 770 Jeroboam II Uzziah 722 Fall of Israel 701 Jerusalem Spared 605 First Deportation 597 Second Deportation 586 Fall of Judah 539 Decree of Cyrus 516 Temple Rebuilt 445 Jerusalem Rebuilt

  45. Jonah - Structure • Jonah commissioned to go to Ninevah, his disobedience (1:1-3) • Jonah and the pagan sailors (1:4-16) • Jonah’s grateful, beautiful prayer (1:17-2:10) • Jonah recommissioned to go to Ninevah, his obedience (3:1-3a) • Jonah and the pagan Ninevites (3:3b-10) • Jonah’s resentful, mean-spirited prayer (4:1-4) CLIMAX: Yahweh’s Lesson for Jonah (4:5-11) Adapted from Dorsey, Literary Structure of the OT, p. 292

  46. Jonah – Structure (cont…) • Jonah commissioned to go to Ninevah, his disobedience (1:1-3) • “The word of Yahweh came to Jonah son of Amittai: ‘Arise, go to Ninevah, the great city, and proclaim against it . . .’ And Jonah arose and fled to Tarshish from the presence of Yahweh” • Jonah recommissioned to go to Ninevah, his obedience (3:1-3a) • “The word of Yahweh came to Jonah a second time: ‘Arise, go to Ninevah, the great city, and proclaim against it . . .’ And Jonah arose and went to Ninevah according to the word of Yahweh” Adapted from Dorsey, Literary Structure of the OT, p. 290

  47. Jonah - Structure • Jonah commissioned to go to Ninevah, his disobedience (1:1-3) • Jonah and the pagan sailors (1:4-16) • Jonah’s grateful, beautiful prayer (1:17-2:10) • Jonah recommissioned to go to Ninevah, his obedience (3:1-3a) • Jonah and the pagan Ninevites (3:3b-10) • Jonah’s resentful, mean-spirited prayer (4:1-4) CLIMAX: Yahweh’s Lesson for Jonah (4:5-11) Adapted from Dorsey, Literary Structure of the OT, p. 292

  48. Jonah – Structure (cont…) Jonah and the pagan sailors/Ninevites • Jonah finds himself among idolatrous pagans with whom he interacts • Jonah’s arrival brings with it the ominous judgment of his God Yahweh • The pagans respond immediately, vigorously, and with great conviction. • The pagans cry out to Jonah’s God for mercy • Their leader (the captain, the king) participates • The leader expresses hope that God may show mercy and relent • Yahweh spares the pagans • Yahweh spares the guilty parties—Jonah and the Ninevites Adapted from Dorsey, Literary Structure of the OT, p. 290-91

  49. Jonah - Structure • Jonah commissioned to go to Ninevah, his disobedience (1:1-3) • Jonah and the pagan sailors (1:4-16) • Jonah’s grateful, beautiful prayer (1:17-2:10) • Jonah recommissioned to go to Ninevah, his obedience (3:1-3a) • Jonah and the pagan Ninevites (3:3b-10) • Jonah’s resentful, mean-spirited prayer (4:1-4) CLIMAX: Yahweh’s Lesson for Jonah (4:5-11) Adapted from Dorsey, Literary Structure of the OT, p. 292

  50. Jonah – Structure (cont…) Jonah’s Two Prayers “The correspondence of these two prayers is fairly obvious: both are in response to Yahweh’s sparing a guilty party (Jonah, the Ninevites); both are introduced with “and Jonah prayed to Yahweh”; and both contain three of the same keywords: ‘love’, ‘my life’, and ‘my soul’. What is striking, however, is their differences. The first . . . is beautiful, almost serene. It is steeped in piety and rich theology. In contrast, the second prayer . . . is the opposite: it is not beautiful, serene, pious, or theologically rich. Rather, it is an indignant outburst, petty, small, mean-spirited. In the first prayer, Jonah celebrates Yahweh’s ‘kindness’, which pagans forfeit (2:8); in the second Jonah complains that Yahweh’s [kindness] has been extended to the pagans—as Jonah feared it would (4:2). In the first prayer Jonah is grateful that his ‘life’ and ‘soul’ have been saved (2:5-7); in the second he angrily entreats Yahweh to take his ‘life’ and ‘soul’. In the first prayer, Jonah praises Yahweh for sparing him—one person—from the punishment he deserve (although he apparently has not repented of his disobedience!); whereas in the second prayer Jonah is angry that Yahweh has spared many thousands of innocent children, as well as people who have sincerely repented.” (David Dorsey, Literary Structure of the OT, p. 291)