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第二篇 管理議題. 4. 多樣化管理. 各節重點. 4.1 定義職場的多樣化以及管理的重要性. 4.2 描述美國及全世界職場的改變. 4.3 解釋職場中所發現的多樣化類別. 4.4 討論管理者管理職場多樣化所面對的挑戰. 4.5 描述各種職場多樣化的管理活動. 4.1. 多樣化 101.

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第二篇 管理議題

4

多樣化管理

各節重點

4.1 定義職場的多樣化以及管理的重要性

4.2 描述美國及全世界職場的改變

4.3 解釋職場中所發現的多樣化類別

4.4 討論管理者管理職場多樣化所面對的挑戰

4.5 描述各種職場多樣化的管理活動

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4.1

多樣化 101

  • Look around your workplace, you’re likely to see young/old, male/female, tall/short, blue-eyed/brown-eyed, any number of races, and any variety of dress styles. You may noticed that your own little world is diversified.
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受文者:全體專任教職員

發文日期:中華民國101年10月9日

發文字號:(101)真大達秘字第012號

主旨:增列本校「校長遴選委員會」教師代表台北校區、台南校區女性教師名額提送董事會圈選,請 查照。

說明:

一、依據大學法第九條第五項:「……校長遴選員會之組成,任一性別委員應占委員總數三分之一以上」,本次遴選委員會委員如依照之選舉之得票高低順序送董事會圈選,將發生抵觸前開大學法第九條之結果。

二、為此,依選舉結果得票數,增列本校之「校長遴選委員會」女性教師代表,增列名冊如下(如附件),提送董事會圈選:

(一)台北校區:增列女性教師選舉結果前2名:劉○○、李○○。

(二)台南校區:增列女性教師選舉結果前1名:鄭○○。

三、本案與101年10月4日(101)真大達秘字第011號文併案處理;選舉結果名冊送請董事會圈選後,併同董事會選(遴)聘代表另行公布「校長遴選委員會」委員名冊。

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什麼是職場的多樣化 What is Workforce Diversity?

  • 職場的多樣化
  • 是指組織內各個成員間的差異及相似的程度。
  • Workforce Diversity
  • the ways in which people in an organization are different from and similar to one another.
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Levels of Diversity

外在的多樣化 —

用年齡、種族、性別等做區別標準,卻無法反射出每個人自己的想法及感受。

Surface-level diversity—

Easily perceived differences that may trigger certain stereotypes, but do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel.

更深層次的多樣化 —

價值觀、個性、工作偏好的差異。

Deep-level diversity —

Differences in values, personality, and work preferences.

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4.2

改變中的職場 The Changing Workplace

  • 非裔美籍的美國總統、女性州長、拉丁裔最高法院法官等例子可以說明現今美國政治人物的多樣性。即使在企業界中,原先由白人男性占據的管理階層也開始看到女性及多族群的影子。
  • An African American as the president of the United States. A woman heading up the State Department. A Latina sitting on the nation’s highest court. Even at the highest levels of the political arena, we see a diverse workplace.
  • In the business world, the once predominantly white male managerial workforce has given way to a more gender-balanced, multiethnic workforce.
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全球勞動力的變革 what about the global workforce changes

  • 根據聯合國預測,全球正處在兩個重大的人口結構改變中:According to United Nations forecasts, the world is under two major demographic changes:
  • 全球人口增加:開發中國家保持較高人口出生率,這些國家的勞動力注入了年輕人口,將有益於國家整體產值與經濟成長。
  • Total world population increased:Developing countries remain high birthrates. The rising proportion of young people entering the workforce, driving productivity and economic growth.
  • 老化中的社會:80歲以上人口數即將超過小於5歲之人口數,2008~2040年間,80歲以上人口將成長233%。
  • An aging population:People aged 65 and over will soon outnumber children under age 5. Aged 80 and over is projected to increase 233% between 2008~2040.
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4.3

職場多樣化型態 Types of workplace Diversity

年齡

  • 人口老化是目前勞動力發生變化的一個主要議題,將近8,500萬嬰兒潮出生的人仍活躍在職場上,管理者必須注意這群人不會因為年紀的問題受排擠。

Both Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (U.S.) prohibit age discrimination.

Age

  • With many of the nearly 85 million baby boomers still employed and active in the workforce, managers must ensure that those employees are not discriminated against because of age.
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性別 Gender

Average Salary (Taiwan)

  • 薪資平等議題
  • Salary equality issue

Female

F/M

Male

2008

2009

2007

2010

  • 績效表現議題
  • Job performance issue
  • 工作時程偏好議題
  • Preference for work schedules issue
  • 男性/女性是否都同樣能勝任管理者的職務 ?
  • One question of much interest as it relates to gender is whether men and women are equally competent as managers ?
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種族及種族特徵 Race and Ethnicity

  • 種族是指生理上可供辨識的遺傳特質(如膚色等)
  • Race - the biological heritage (including skin color and associated traits) that people use to identify themselves.
  • 種族特徵 (ethnicity) 指的是種族的文化背景或向心力。
  • Ethnicity - social traits (such as cultural background or allegiance) that are shared by a human population.
  • 據統計,美國人口中種族及特徵的多樣化,呈現指數化的成長,這也反應在企業組織內。
  • The racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population is increasing at an exponential rate.
slide13

殘疾 Disability/Abilities

  • 1990年美國身心障礙法正式立法,禁止對身心障礙人士有任何歧視行為,並規定所有的工作場所必須因應身心障礙員工的需要,做出適當的配置及調整。
  • The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)of 1990 prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities.
slide15

宗教 Religion

  • 美國公民人權法案第七條載明禁止因為宗教信仰產生的歧視行為,但在911 後,穆斯林所引發的多樣化問題卻益形惡化。
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion.Today, it seems that the greatest religious diversity issue in U.S. revolves around Islam, especially after 9/11.
slide16

其他型態的多樣化 Other Types of Diversity

  • 職場中多樣化還包括了社經背景的不同、不同功能部門的差異、個人魅力程度、胖/瘦、工作資歷、智力水準等。
  • Other types of workplace diversity that managers might confront and have to deal with include socioeconomic background, team members from different functional areas or organizational units, physical attractiveness, obesity/thinness, job seniority, or intellectual abilities.
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4.4

管理多樣化的挑戰 Challenges in Diversity

個人成見 Personal Bias

  • 「偏見」(prejudice) 是對單一個人或族群先入為主的想法、意見和評斷。
  • Prejudice - a pre-conceived belief, opinion, or judgment toward a person or a group of people.
  • 成見 (bias) 指的是對某些特定觀點或想法的偏好。
  • Bias - a tendency or preference toward a particular perspective or ideology.

1968

浩劫餘生

82

slide18

刻板印象 (stereotyping) 指的是對一個團體成員的定論,將團體的印象應用在每一個成員上。

  • Stereotyping - judging a person based on a prejudicial perception of a group to which that person belongs.
  • 使特定個人或群體受到不公平對待,這種不公平就是「歧視」(discrimination)。
  • Discrimination - when someone acts out their prejudicial attitudes toward people who are the targets of their prejudice.

北國性騷擾

82

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玻璃天花板現象是指女性、少數族群要通往高階管理職務時所看不到的障礙。玻璃天花板現象是指女性、少數族群要通往高階管理職務時所看不到的障礙。

  • Glass Ceiling - the invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions.

IndraNooyi

王雪紅

Virginia Rometty

現實社會中

The first job for 60%of female MBA graduate will be an entry-level position. However, only 46% of male MBA graduate would start out in an entry-level position.

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4.5

職場多樣化行動

Workplace Diversity Initiatives

Exhibit 4-8Major Equal EmploymentOpportunity Laws (U.S.)

Labor Standards Act (Taiwan)

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顧問指導 Mentoring

  • 如果公司高階管理人中,女性 / 少數族裔占的比例過少可能引發的後遺症之一是,背景相似的基層員工在工作上會找不到有同理心的主管幫忙解決問題。此時,顧問指導就有其必要性。
  • Mentoring - a process whereby an experienced organizational member (a mentor) provides advice and guidance to a less-experienced member (a protégé).
slide23

多樣化工作技能訓練 Diversity Skills Training

  • 多樣化工作技能訓練 -藉由教育訓練,讓員工瞭解多樣化的重要性,而且讓員工發展能與多樣化同僚一起工作的技能。
  • Diversity Skills Training - specialized training to educate employees about the importance of diversity and to teach them skills for working in a diverse workplace.
  • 經由此課程,會瞭解自己過去存在什麼預設立場以及偏見。
  • Employees are made aware of the assumptions and biases they may have.
  • 學習如何與職場上多樣族群溝通的技巧,讓工作更有效率。
  • People learn specific skills on how to communicate and work effectively in a diverse work environment.