The states of the early Middle ages (VI-X centuries). Lecture 6. Brief contents:. 1. Turkic Khaganate (552-603) & West Turkic Khaganate (603-704) 2. Turgesh khaganate (704-756) 3. State of Kharlukh’s ( 756-940) 4. State of Kharakhanyds (942-1210). Successors of Turk heritage .
1. Turkic Khaganate (552-603) & West Turkic Khaganate(603-704)
3. State of Kharlukh’s (756-940)
4. State of Kharakhanyds (942-1210)
The first mentions of Turks appeared in 542 year in the Chinese sources in which attacks tuzue (Turks) to China from northwest are described. Chinese considered Turks as descendants of hunnu tribes.
The early Turkic state - Turkic kaganate (551-603) has arisen in 551 year when the leader of Turks Bumyn has accepted the title- kagan.
The next kagan became the Kara-kagan
(552-553), then Mukan-kagan (553-572),
later Taspar-kagan (572-581).
In 587 y. Turks hade possessed of the Central Asia and became masters of Great Silk Road.
Pressure from the outside, and social contradictions inside the country have weakened the Turkic kaganate, and in 603 year it was divided into two independent states: East - Central - Asian and Western - Central Asian kaganats.
West-Turkic kaganate (603-704) became a state " of ten tribes " (the self-name On Ok Eli- the state of ten darts).
Capital and the kagan’s winter rate was the city of Suyab in Chu valley (near Tokmak), and summer residence – Mingbulak (near Turkistan).
West -Turkic kaganate was the state with the advanced city and agricultural culture, prospering trade on the Great Silk way. In VI-VII c. in valleys of the rivers Talas, Chu, Ili have arisen 10 cities and fortresses.
In 630-634 years kaganate has lost the Central Asian possession to the west from Syr-Darya, the state has entered a strip of crisis which main reason were pressure from the outside and struggle for authority of the tribal unions. In Semirechie the Chinese armies have intruded, in 657 year the home guard " to ten darts' was defeated.
Turgeshs - a numerous tribe, settled the western part of kaganate in territory of Chu - Ili interriver and supervising the most part of karavan ways of Semirechie. Uch-Elik is founder of state.Themain headquarters was in Suyab city, and then it was transferred to Taraz.
Turgeshkaganate has become stronger at a board of Suluk-kagan.Big danger for Turgeshs proceeded from Arabs who in every possible way tried to decline Suluk on their side, but he successfully struggled against them, for what Arabs have nicknamed him Abu Muzahim (Butting).
In the middle of VIII century interests of Chinese and Arabs for the influence in this region has resulted to Тalas battle in July of 751 year on Talasriver in Atlakh town, near Tarazcity (Talas battle) have extraordinary sharply collided.
The main role in route of Chinese have played Karluks, unexpectedly put to them impact rear. This battle was of great importance, it has for a long time put an end to attempts of China to interfere with affairs of this region, on the other hand, it has strengthened influence here Arabs. In 756 year Turgeshkaganate was disintegrated.
It was union by the Karluk’s state – Karlukkaganate (756-942) with the headquarters in Suyab.In 766 Kharlukhzhabgus, exercising their power in Zheysu, led the fighting against the Arabs.
Arabs could rule only some parts of Southern Kazakhstan belonging to caliphate.
The ancestor of a dynasty was SatukBograkhan (915-955) who in 942 year has declared itself as a kagan. This state of Turkic tribes occupied territory of Semirechie, its centre settled down in Chu valley, and the headquarters in Balasaguncity.
In due course their possession has extended from Amu -Darya and Syr-Darya up to Kashgar. Then they have broken up to two parts - east, including Semirechie and East Turkistan with the centre in Balasagun, and western – Maverannakhr-(territory between Amu -Darya and Syr –Darya) with the center the first time in Taraz, and then in Samarkand
The important event at Karakhanydswas acceptance by a dynasty of the Islam, it is connected to a kagan’s name Satuk-Bograkhan who in 955 year has declared it, and in 960 year in internal areas of the Karakhanydstate, most likely in Semirechie, 200 thousand tents have accepted the Islam (Arabic name Satuk-Bograkhan is Abd-al-Kerim).